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Technical Paper

A CFD Study of Losses in a Straight-Six Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0230
Using a previously validated and documented CFD methodology, this research simulated the flow field in the intake region (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) involving the four cylinders (#1, #3, #4, #6) of a straight-six IC engine. Each cylinder was studied with its intake valves set at high, medium and low valve lifts. All twelve viscous 3-D turbulent flow simulation models had high density, high quality computational grids and complete domains. Extremely fine grid density were applied for every simulation up to 1,000,000 finite volume cells. Results for all the cases presented here were declared “fully converged” and “grid independent”. The relative magnitude of total pressure losses in the entire intake region and loss mechanisms were documented here. It was found that the total pressure losses were caused by a number of flow mechanisms.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Driving Course for Military Personnel -Curriculum and Assessment Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-0130
Driving skills and driving experience develop differently between a civilian and a military service member. Since 2000, the Department of Defense reports that two-thirds of non-related to war fatalities among active duty service members were due to transportation-related incidents. In addition, vehicle crashes are the leading non-related to war cause of both fatalities and serious injuries among active duty Marines. A pilot safe driving program for Marines was jointly developed by the Richard Petty Driving Experience and Clemson University Automotive Safety Research Institute. The pilot program includes four modules based on leading causes of vehicle crashes, and uses classroom and behind the wheel components to improve and reinforce safe driving skills and knowledge. The assessment results of this pilot program conducted with 192 Marines in September 2011 at Camp LeJeune, NC are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Knock Determination Techniques for Diesel-Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2695
The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated.
Technical Paper

An Improved Seating Accommodation Model for Older and Younger Drivers

2016-04-05
2016-01-1444
The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver’s seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one’s capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Roll Control on Handling and Stability of Passenger Vehicles During Severe Lane Change Maneuvers

1995-02-01
950305
The control of body roll on passenger vehicles can be used as a tool for controlling the “weight shift” that occurs during maneuvering. Distribution of load to the tires will determine the ability of each tire to generate lateral forces required for the maneuver and thus will significantly affect handling. In this investigation, the effects on weight shift and hence, on handling, of total roll stiffness, front to rear roll stiffness distribution, total roll damping, and roll damping distribution were examined. These results were then used to guide the development and analysis of several roll control algorithms. The results of the investigation indicate that roll control can be effective in improving handling and stability. However, simulation of the control algorithms showed that the controllers must be specifically tuned for the vehicle in which they are to be used.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Pulse Steer Method for Determining Automobile Handling Qualities

1993-03-01
930829
The use of pulse steering tests for assessment of handling qualities was investigated using a simulation of a comprehensive, nonlinear four wheel model of an automobile. Evaluations were conducted using frequency response functions of yaw rate and lateral acceleration obtained by FFT processing of the simulated response. In addition, as suggested by the work of Mimuro et al [1], four parameters (steady state yaw rate gain, yaw rate natural frequency and damping ratio, and lateral acceleration phase lag at 1 Hz) that characterize these response functions were also obtained by curve fitting techniques. The effects on accuracy of the response functions and the four parameters of variations in pulse shape, duration, and magnitude were investigated. Results from the simulated pulse steer test were compared with those from simulated swept sine steering tests.
Technical Paper

Automotive Simulator Based Novice Driver Training with Assessment

2011-04-12
2011-01-1011
Motor vehicle crashes involving novice drivers are significantly higher than matured driver incidents as reported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System (NHTSA-FARS). Researchers around the world and the United States are focused on how to decrease crashes for this driver demographic. Novice drivers usually complete driver education classes as a pre-requisite for full licensure to improve overall knowledge and safety. However, compiled statistics still indicate a need for more in-depth training after full licensure. An opportunity exists to supplement in-vehicle driving with focused learning modules using automotive simulators. In this paper, a training program for “Following Etiquette” and “Situational Awareness” was developed to introduce these key driving techniques and to complete a feasibility study using a driving simulator as the training tool.
Technical Paper

Clemson University Motorsports Engineering Program

1996-12-01
962496
The newly initiated Clemson Motorsports Engineering Program, housed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, provides unique educational opportunities to our students combining classroom engineering education, research, and race team experience. Additionally, the research and service projects conducted provide valuable information to race teams and companies in the automotive industry as well as involving students in both applied technology development and fundamental engineering activities. This paper describes the current activities and structure of the program together with our view for future development.
Book

Composites in Automotive Applications set

2015-09-10
This set consists of three books, Design of Automotive Composites, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications all developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites focuses on the latest use of CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) methods in design and failure analysis of composite materials and structures, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications, focuses on processing and characterization of biocomposites, their application in the automotive industry and new perspectives on automotive sustainability. Together, they are a focused collection providing the reader with must-read technical papers, hand-picked by the editors, supporting the growing importance of the use of composites in the ground vehicle industry. Dr. Charles Lu is H.E.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Portable Driving Performance and Analysis System for Education Purposes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0259
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
Technical Paper

Development and Qualitative Testing of Traction Concepts as an Undergraduate Experience

2010-04-12
2010-01-0312
Recent research at Clemson University has focused on the development of an advanced non-pneumatic, non-elastomeric lunar wheel for NASA with superior traction. This paper reports on several concepts for tread materials and geometries that have been explored for tire-on-sand use. Specifically, fourteen concepts, involving the use of metal meshes, textile carpet materials, soft grousers, foams, and screens, were physically tested in an on-vehicle environment. Prototypes for each concept and formal test procedures to quantify traction were developed. This paper presents the results of the tests for several different concepts and the comparison between the concepts that were developed. Students developed their own testing environment through which these test procedures are implemented, an inclined hill 45 ft. in length and 8 ft. wide will approximately 6 inches deep filled with sand.
Technical Paper

Driver Models for Virtual Testing of Automotive Run-Off-Road and Recovery Control Systems and Education Strategies

2015-04-14
2015-01-0256
Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
Technical Paper

Dynamic Impact Simulation of Interaction between Non-Pneumatic Tire and Sand with Obstacle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0184
In this paper, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to model and simulate the dynamic interaction between non-pneumatic tire and sand with obstacle to investigate the influence of obstacle on performance of the non-pneumatic tire. The non-pneumatic tire consists of three major components: two inextensible circumferential membranes, a critical shear beam, and a group of deformable spokes. The non-pneumatic tire fabricated of segmented cylinders is illustrated and the FEM model for the tire is given in detail. The tire is treated as an elastic deformable body with the inertia effect included. Lebanon sand found in New Hampshire is used in this simulation because of the availability of a complete set of material properties in the literature. Modified Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is utilized to model the sand. The obstacle is represented as an elastic body.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Interaction between Non-Pneumatic Tire and Sand

2010-04-12
2010-01-0377
In this paper, in support of developing an advanced non-pneumatic lunar tire, a dynamic interaction model between non-pneumatic tire and sand is presented using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This non-pneumatic tire is composed of three major components: a critical shear beam, two inextensible circumferential membranes, and deformable spokes. The non-pneumatic tire made of segmented cylinders is described in detail. The tire is treated as an elastic deformable body with the inertia effect is included. Lebanon sand found in New Hampshire is modeled as because of the availability of a complete set of material properties in the literature. The Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is employed to model the sand. Numerical results show contact pressure distribution, distributions of various stresses and strains, deformation of non-pneumatic tire, and deformation of sand.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ring Rolling Process

2010-04-12
2010-01-0270
Three-dimensional simulation has become an indispensable approach to develop improved understanding of ring rolling technology, with validity as the basic requirement of the ring rolling simulation. Cold ring rolling is simple conceptually, however complex to analyze as the metal forming process is subject to coupled effects with multiple influencing factors such as sizes of rolls and ring blank, form geometry, material, process parameters, and frictional effects. Investigating the coupled thermal and plastic deformation behavior (the plastic deformation state and its development) in the deformation zone during the process is significant for predicting metal flow in order to control the geometric and tensile residual stress quality of deformed rings, and to provide for cycle time optimization of the cold ring rolling process.
Journal Article

Hydrostatic Wheel Drives for Vehicle Stability Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0105
Hydrostatic (hydraulic hybrid) drives have demonstrated energy efficiency and emissions reduction benefits. This paper investigates the potential of an independent hydrostatic wheel drive system for implementing a traction-based vehicle lateral stability control system. The system allows an upper level vehicle stability controller to produce a desired corrective yaw moment via a differential distribution of torque to the independent wheel motors. In cornering maneuvers that require braking on any one wheel of the vehicle, the motors can be operated as pumps for re-generating energy into an on-board accumulator. This approach avoids or reduces activation of the friction brakes, thereby reducing energy waste as heat in the brake pads and offering potential savings in brake maintenance costs. For this study, a model of a 4×4 hydrostatic independent wheel drive system is constructed in a causal and modular fashion and is coupled to a 7 DOF vehicle handling dynamics model.
Journal Article

Input Adaptation for Control Oriented Physics-Based SI Engine Combustion Models Based on Cylinder Pressure Feedback

2015-04-14
2015-01-0877
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets, they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The additional complexity created by a larger number of control actuators motivates the use of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Combustion phasing, as one of the most important engine combustion metrics, has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. To realize physics-based engine combustion phasing control, an accurate prediction model is required. This research introduces physics-based control-oriented laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity models that can be used in a quasi-dimensional turbulent entrainment combustion model. The influence of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity on predicted mass fraction burned (MFB) profile during combustion is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Machining of Titanium Components for Lightweight Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0022
Due to titanium's excellent strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance, titanium and its alloys have great potential to reduce energy usage in vehicles through a reduction in vehicle mass. The mass of a road vehicle is directly related to its energy consumption through inertial requirements and tire rolling resistance losses. However, when considering the manufacture of titanium automotive components, the machinability is poor, thus increasing processing cost through a trade-off between extended cycle time (labor cost) or increased tool wear (tooling cost). This fact has classified titanium as a “difficult-to-machine” material and consequently, titanium has been traditionally used for application areas having a comparatively higher end product cost such as in aerospace applications, the automotive racing segment, etc., as opposed to the consumer automotive segment.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control-Oriented Combustion Phasing Feedback for Fast CA50 Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0868
The highly transient operational nature of passenger car engines makes cylinder pressure based feedback control of combustion phasing difficult. The problem is further complicated by cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A method for fast and accurate differentiation of normal combustion variations and true changes in combustion phasing is addressed in this research. The proposed method combines the results of a feed forward combustion phasing prediction model and “noisy” measurements from cylinder pressure using an iterative estimation technique. A modified version of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to calculate optimal estimation gain according to the stochastic properties of the combustion phasing measurement at the corresponding engine operating condition. Methods to improve steady state CA50 estimation performance and adaptation to errors are further discussed in this research.
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