Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Wear Resistance of Lunar Wheel Treads Made of Polymeric Fabrics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0065
The purpose of this research is to characterize the wear resistance of wheel treads made of polymeric woven and non-woven fabrics. Experimental research is used to characterize two wear mechanisms: (1) external wear due to large sliding between the tread and rocks, and (2) external wear due to small sliding between the tread and abrasive sand. Experimental setups include an abrasion tester and a small-scale merry-go-round where the tread is attached to a deformable rolling wheel. The wear resistance is characterized using various measures including, quantitatively, by the number of cycles to failure, and qualitatively, by micro-visual inspection of the fibers’ surface. This paper describes the issues related to each experiment and discusses the results obtained with different polymeric materials, fabric densities and sizes. The predominant wear mechanism is identified and should then be used as one of the criteria for further design of the tread.
Journal Article

Vehicle Road Runoff and Return - Effect of Limited Steering Intervention

2011-04-12
2011-01-0583
Vehicle safety remains a significant concern for consumers, government agencies, and automotive manufacturers. One critical type of vehicle accident results from the right or left side tires leaving the road surface and then returning abruptly due to large steering wheel inputs (road runoff and return). A subset of runoff road crashes that involve a steep hard shoulder has been labeled shoulder induced accidents. In this paper, a limited authority real time steering controller has been developed to mitigate shoulder induced accidents. A Kalman Filter based tire cornering stiffness estimation technique has been coupled with a feedback controller and driver intention module to create a safer driving solution without excessive intervention. In numerical studies, lateral vehicle motion improvements of 30% were realized for steering intervention. Specifically, the vehicle crossed the centerline after 1.0 second in the baseline case versus 1.3 seconds with steering assistance at 60 kph.
Technical Paper

Use of Machine Learning for Real-Time Non-Linear Model Predictive Engine Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1289
Non-linear model predictive engine control (nMPC) systems have the ability to reduce calibration effort while improving transient engine response. The main drawback of nMPC for engine control is the computational power required to realize real-time operation. Most of this computational power is spent linearizing the non-linear plant model at each time step. Additionally, the effectiveness of the nMPC system relies heavily on the accuracy of the model(s) used to predict the future system behavior, which can be difficult to model physically. This paper introduces a hybrid modeling approach for internal combustion engines that combines physics-based and machine learning techniques to generate accurate models that can be linearized with low computational power. This approach preserves the generalization and robustness of physics-based models, while maintaining high accuracy of data-driven models. Advantages of applying the proposed model with nMPC are discussed.
Technical Paper

Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-1077
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors.
Technical Paper

Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

2019-04-02
2019-01-0396
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction. One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions.
Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

2019-04-02
2019-01-0521
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Linear Approximation Error for Model Predictive Control of Spark-Ignited Turbocharged Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0014
Modern turbocharged spark-ignition engines are being equipped with an increasing number of control actuators to meet fuel economy, emissions, and performance targets. The response time variations between engine control actuators tend to be significant during transients and necessitate highly complex actuator scheduling routines. Model Predictive Control (MPC) has the potential to significantly reduce control calibration effort as compared to the current methodologies that are based on decentralized feedback control strategies. MPC strategies simultaneously generate all actuator responses by using a combination of current engine conditions and optimization of a control-oriented plant model. To achieve real-time control, the engine model and optimization processes must be computationally efficient without sacrificing effectiveness. Most MPC systems intended for real-time control utilize a linearized model that can be quickly evaluated using a sub-optimal optimization methodology.
Technical Paper

Pointing Gesture Based Point of Interest Identification in Vehicle Surroundings

2018-04-03
2018-01-1094
This article presents a pointing gesture-based point of interest computation method via pointing rays’ intersections for situated awareness interactions in vehicles. The proposed approach is compared with two alternative methods: (a) a point of interest identification method based on the intersection of the pointing ray with the point cloud (PoC) resulting from the vehicle sensors, and (b) the traditional ray-casting approach, where the point of interest is computed based on the first intersection of the pointing rays with locations stored in a 2D annotated map. Simulation results show that the presented method outperforms by 36.25% the traditional ray casting one. However, as it was expected, the sensor-based computation method is more accurate. The validation of our approach was conducted by experiments performed in a test track facility.
Technical Paper

On Enhanced Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller and Its Chattering Suppression for Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1403
This paper aims to present an enhanced fuzzy sliding-mode control scheme with variable rate reaching law for semi-active vehicle suspension systems, which can reduce chattering phenomena in high frequency compared with the sliding-mode controller with traditional exponent reaching law. First, an ideal-skyhook damping suspension system is taken as reference model; then the new control law is synthesized by employing the fuzzy logic control while considering the sliding-mode reaching segment characteristics, which can dynamically change the reaching rate to suppress chattering in closed-loop control systems; finally, simulation analysis is conducted under both random road and bump road surface, the results verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control scheme.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of an Optical Soot Sensor for Modern Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1514
It has been extensively evidenced that modern diesel engines generate a considerable amount of soot nanoparticles. Existing soot sensors are not suitable for such nanoparticles. Current standard gravimetric techniques are extremely insensitive to fine soot particles. Soot diagnostics developed for research purposes, e.g., laser induced-incandescence, do not provide quantitative characterization, and expanded practical applications of these techniques are hardly conceivable. This paper addresses this emerging need for monitoring nano-sized soot emissions. Here, we investigated the use of polarization modulated scattering (PMS) for soot sensing in engine environments. The technique involves 1) measuring laser scattering by soot particles at multiple angles while varying the polarization states of the incident laser beam, 2) determining multiple elements of the Mueller matrix from the measured signals, and 3) inferring properties of the soot particles from these elements.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Phase Change Materials for Thermal

2009-04-20
2009-01-0171
Phase change materials (PCMs) are extensively used in many engineering areas for thermal management purposes. This paper investigated the application of PCMs for vehicular systems, especially for the thermal protection of vehicle lighting systems based on light emitting diodes (LEDs). Lighting systems based on LEDs offer many advantages, however, also pose a smaller margin of error for thermal management. This paper analyzed the combined use of PCMs with metal foam for cooling systems. The cooling performance was studied numerically under different porosity values of the metal foam, and different boundary conditions. The cooling performance was also compared to a solid metal sink system (SMS) and was found to offer several distinct cooling characteristics.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of a Series Hybrid CNG Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1802
Predicting fuel economy during early stages of concept development or feasibility study for a new type of powertrain configuration is an important key factor that might affect the powertrain configuration decision to meet CAFE standards. In this paper an efficient model has been built in order to evaluate the fuel economy for a new type of charge sustaining series hybrid vehicle that uses a Genset assembly (small 2 cylinders CNG fueled engine coupled with a generator). A first order mathematical model for a Li-Ion polymer battery is presented based on actual charging /discharging datasheet. Since the Genset performance data is not available, normalized engine variables method is used to create powertrain performance maps. An Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) has been implemented to determine how much power is supplied to the electric motor from the battery and the Genset.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Learning of Object Placing Tasks from Human Demonstrations in Smart Manufacturing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0700
In this paper, we present a framework for the robot to learn how to place objects to a workpiece by learning from humans in smart manufacturing. In the proposed framework, the rational scene dictionary (RSD) corresponding to the keyframes of task (KFT) are used to identify the general object-action-location relationships. The Generalized Voronoi Diagrams (GVD) based contour is used to determine the relative position and orientation between the object and the corresponding workpiece at the final state. In the learning phase, we keep tracking the image segments in the human demonstration. For the moment when a spatial relation of some segments are changed in a discontinuous way, the state changes are recorded by the RSD. KFT is abstracted after traversing and searching in RSD, while the relative position and orientation of the object and the corresponding mount are presented by GVD-based contours for the keyframes.
Technical Paper

Knock Thresholds and Stochastic Performance Predictions: An Experimental Validation Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-1168
Knock control systems are fundamentally stochastic, regulating some aspect of the distribution from which observed knock intensities are drawn. Typically a simple threshold is applied, and the controller regulates the resultant knock event rate. Recent work suggests that the choice of threshold can have a significant impact on closed loop performance, but to date such studies have been performed only in simulation. Rigorous assessment of closed loop performance is also a challenging topic in its own right because response trajectories depend on the random arrival of knock events. The results therefore vary from one experiment to the next, even under identical operating conditions. To address this issue, stochastic simulation methods have been developed which aim to predict the expected statistics of the closed loop response, but again these have not been validated experimentally.
Journal Article

IIoT-Enabled Production System for Composite Intensive Vehicle Manufacturing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0290
The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart material flow control. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop. By creating a digital twin for every physical part, we no longer need to adhere to the conventional manufacturing processes and layouts, thus opening up new opportunities in terms of equipment and space utilization. The century-old philosophy of the assembly line might not be the best layout for vehicle manufacturing, thus proposing a novel assembly grid layout inspired from a colony of ants working to accomplish a common goal.
Technical Paper

Handling Deviation for Autonomous Vehicles after Learning from Small Dataset

2018-04-03
2018-01-1091
Learning only from a small set of examples remains a huge challenge in machine learning. Despite recent breakthroughs in the applications of neural networks, the applicability of these techniques has been limited by the requirement for large amounts of training data. What’s more, the standard supervised machine learning method does not provide a satisfactory solution for learning new concepts from little data. However, the ability to learn enough information from few samples has been demonstrated in humans. This suggests that humans may make use of prior knowledge of a previously learned model when learning new ones on a small amount of training examples. In the area of autonomous driving, the model learns to drive the vehicle with training data from humans, and most machine learning based control algorithms require training on very large datasets. Collecting and constructing training data set takes a huge amount of time and needs specific knowledge to gather relevant information.
Technical Paper

Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

2006-07-17
2006-01-2236
This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Automotive Simulator Based Driver Safety Training Program for Run-Off-the-Road and Recovery

2013-04-08
2013-01-1260
Despite the growing acceptance of driver education programs, there remains a class of unpredictable and dangerous vehicle situations for which very little training or education is offered. Included in this list is a condition called run-off-the-road (ROR) which occurs when the wheels of the vehicle leave the paved surface of the road and begin to travel on the lower friction surfaces of the shoulder or side of the road. Unsuccessful recovery from ROR contributes to an overwhelming percentage of motorized vehicle crash fatalities and injuries. Most present solutions involve roadway infrastructure management and driver assistance systems. While these solutions have contributed varying amounts of success to the ROR problem, they remain limited as they do not directly address the critical cause of ROR crashes which is driver performance errors.
Journal Article

Effects of Material Properties on Static Load-Deflection and Vibration of a Non-Pneumatic Tire During High-Speed Rolling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0101
The Michelin Tweel tire structure has recently been developed as an innovative non-pneumatic tire which has potential for improved handling, grip, comfort, low energy loss when impacting obstacles and reduced rolling resistance when compared to a traditional pneumatic tire. One of the potential sources of vibration during rolling of a non-pneumatic tire is the buckling phenomenon and snapping back of the spokes in tension when they enter and exit the contact zone. Another source of noise was hypothesized due to a flower petal ring vibration effect due to discrete spoke interaction with the ring and contact with the ground during rolling as the spokes cycle between tension and compression. Transmission of vibration between the ground force, ring and spokes to the hub was also considered to be a significant contributor to vibration and noise characteristics of the Tweel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Condenser Two-Phase Flow Characteristics on a Capillary Pumped Loop

2000-07-10
2000-01-2321
One of the intrinsic characteristics found in CPL operation is the oscillatory behavior of the pressure drop, even noted under seemingly steady operation. This study focused on the role of the condensing process and its intrinsic instabilities upon the differential pressure oscillations recorded in the CPL. Through an analytical study of condensing instabilities and an experimental study based on the correlation between pressure records and condensing flow visualization, the impact of slug flow phenomenon occurring in the condensing path was investigated. High amplitude oscillations were seen to be linked with liquid slug phenomena in the way that slug striking the final vapor-liquid interface generated pressure pulses.
X