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Technical Paper

The Influence of Residual Stresses on the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement in Hardened Steel Components Subjected to Rolling Contact Conditions

A review of many years of published work has shown that hydrogen embrittlement can occur under rolling contact conditions. Breakdown of lubrication and contamination with water have been cited as the probable sources of atomic hydrogen. In this paper, a unique fracture morphology is identified and the mechanism of the fracture progression from initiation to final catastrophic failure is proposed. Development of beneficial residual compressive stress near the contacting surfaces is one approach used to avoid this type of failure. Several alternative methods capable of developing a more desirable stress distribution will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Plastics in Automotive Applications

There have been plastics in automobiles almost as long as there have been plastics. This paper deals with plastic molded parts from the 1930’s through 1970. These parts include steering wheels, tail light lenses, knobs, electrical connectors, fasteners, speedometer wheels, distributor caps, water pump impellers, dials, and various decorative ornaments.
Technical Paper

Rolling Bearings for High Performance Hydrostatic Drives Using Water Glycol Based Hydraulic Fluids

Hydraulic fluids of the HFC category are aqueous polymer solutions with a fire resistance enhancing water content of 35 to approx. 50 %. The use of HFC fluids, above all in mobile and stationary drives in mining and in casting is subject to restrictions resulting from a number of features of a fluid. Field practice has shown that while axial-piston pumps may be successfully operated using HFC fluids, rolling bearing failures reduce their operational lifetimes. The bearing failures essentially result from material fatigue. This can be remedied by new quality steel for roller bearings. The combination of high fatigue life and corrosion resistance assures a wide application range for nitrogen-treated steel qualities.
Technical Paper

Microstructural Characteristics of Die Cast AZ91D and AM60 Magnesium Alloys

Die cast AZ91D and AM60 magnesium alloy components are finding increasing usage in automotive applications. Both hot and cold chamber die cast components of these alloys generally exhibit several common microstructural features, including “skin”, porosity banding, and porosity distributed about the component centerline. Methods for quantitatively characterizing these microstructural features are described and representative values for skin thicknesses, porosity band dimensions and porosity band locations from selected die castings will be presented. The expected influence of these common microstrucutral features on mechanical properties and acceptability of die cast magnesium components for given applications are discussed.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Properties of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

This paper provides a review of the fatigue properties reported in the open literature for die cast magnesium-based alloys. Recently developed fatigue data, in the form of stress versus number of cycles to failure for bending fatigue (R=-1), are presented for die cast AM60B and AZ91D alloy specimens with thicknesses between 1 and 10 mm. The effects of specimen thickness and macrostructural features, such as porosity distributions and surface features (parting line and ejection pin marks), on the fatigue data are discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Section Size and Microstructural Features on the Mechanical Properties of Die Cast AZ91D and AM60B Magnesium Alloy Test Bars

Reported tensile and fatigue properties of die cast AZ91D and AM60B magnesium alloys indicate that those values depend on the size and shape of the test samples and their global porosities. This paper reviews the mechanical properties reported in the open literature for these die cast alloys and indicates that section thickness and global porosity are inadequate for predicting the tensile and fatigue properties of die cast AZ91D and AM60B magnesium alloys.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics In The Future

In the future, it will be possible to manufacture very small, robust machines, which may be attached to the surface of a wing allowing the classic boundary condition of “no-slip” to be altered at will. It is also possible that the heat transfer through the wing surface can be controlled. This paper reports an investigation into the possible benefits to aerodynamics that will occur if such machines become available. It is found that imposing an isothermal wing surface can increase the lift drag ratio of wing at transonic cruise and allowing slip at the surface can have the same effect. Both these effects are additive. It is found that control of heat transfer on a wing at hypersonic wing can act as a control device, comparable to that due a moderate flap deflection.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Trajectory Application for Autonomous Aerial Refueling

An outer loop guidance architecture was designed to control autonomous aerial refueling mission from the trail aircraft side. The design utilized bank, yaw rate, velocity and climb rate commands implemented using a previously developed adaptive trajectory concept. The concept was based on position error feedback that was used to control trail aircraft overshoot and tracking about the lead aircraft refueling point. To demonstrate this application, an open loop linear trail aircraft model at a given flight condition was selected. Inner loop control laws were designed using Linear Quadratic Regulator feedback controller and Balanced Deviation theory. The outer loop guidance architecture was then added to implement the application. The performance of the system was then evaluated for a selected position error, and disturbance.