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Technical Paper

A New High Temperature Ceramic Material for Diesel Particulate Filter Applications

2000-10-16
2000-01-2844
Cordierite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been in use for heavy duty engine applications for nearly two decades. Recently, passenger car applications for DPFs have begun to appear in Europe due to tightening legislation. While cordierite-based DPFs work well in most applications, it appears that in the passenger car exhaust environment under some uncontrolled regeneration conditions, cracking and melting of the existing cordierite-based DPF products have been reported. The present paper focuses on the development of new, high temperature oxide ceramics for DPF passenger car applications. When designed properly, DPFs made from these new materials do not show cracking or melting under uncontrolled regeneration. The material properties (strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.) and the filter performance properties (pressure drop, regeneration durability, etc.) have been characterized for DPFs made from these new materials.
Journal Article

A Next Generation Cordierite Diesel Particle Filter with Significantly Reduced Pressure Drop

2011-04-12
2011-01-0813
Diesel particle filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for all current and future on-road diesel engines used in the US. In Europe the introduction of EUVI is expected to also result in the broad implementation of DPF's. The anticipated general trend in engine technology towards higher engine-out NOx/PM ratios results in a somewhat changing set of boundary conditions for the DPF predominantly enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. This enables the design of a novel filter concept optimized for low pressure drop, low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up of a downstream SCR system, therefore reducing CO₂ implications for the DPF operation. In this paper we will discuss results from a next-generation cordierite DPF designed to address these future needs.
Technical Paper

Advances of Durability of Ceramic Converter Systems

1996-10-01
962372
Governing bodies world-wide are setting increasingly tighter emission standards to help improve air quality. US and Californian LEV/ULEV standards are pace setting, European Stage II legislation has just become effective. In Brazil, the upcoming 1997 standards are also demanding for tighter emission control. The monolithic ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter -for more than the past 20 years- has been a reliable key element in the automotive emission control systems. In order to help meet tightened emission regulation as well to satisfy even more stringent durability requirement, an advanced thinwall ceramic Celcor XT has been developed for increased geometric surface area and reduced backpressure. The product properties as well as FTP and ECE emission and durability test results are being described in this paper. Converter system durability is also determined by robust canning and mounting systems. A durable mounting concept, especially for preconverters, is being described.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lightweight Automotive Glass Solutions on Interior Noise Levels & Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1814
The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Mat Material Durability Measurement Under Controlled Thermal and Vibration Environments

2000-03-06
2000-01-0221
To aid in the catalytic converter design and development process, a test apparatus was designed and built which will allow comparative evaluation of the durability of candidate mat materials under highly controlled thermal and vibration environments. The apparatus directly controls relative shear deflection between the substrate and can to impose known levels of mat material strain while recording the transmitted shear force across the mat material. Substrate and can temperatures are controlled at constant levels using a resistive thermal exposure (RTE) technique. Mat material fatigue after several million cycles is evident by a substantial decrease in the transmitted force. A fragility test was found to be an excellent method to quickly compare candidate materials to be used for a specific application. Examples of test results from several materials are given to show the utility of the mat material evaluation technique.
Technical Paper

Development of a Diesel Particulate Filter Composition and Its Effect on Thermal Durability and Filtration Performance

1994-03-01
940235
This paper details the development of the EX-80 composition, a new cordierite material for use as a diesel particulate filter (DPF), that was developed based on the following objectives; (1) improved thermal durability, (2) high filtration efficiency and (3) low pressure drop. The achievement of these goals was demonstrated through engine testing, stress modeling, and other evaluations. EX-80 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) averaging less than 4x10-7°C-1 (25°C-800°C), the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) averages greater than 350 psi and the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) averages less than 0.8 x 106 psi. The improvement of these three properties has resulted in improved thermal durability for EX-80 as compared to the current Corning DPF compositions (EX-47, EX-54 and EX-66). The new cordierite composition has been designed to achieve a low pressure drop as a function of soot loading (0.30 inHg/gm of soot collected), coupled with high efficiency, averaging greater than 90%.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control - Last 12 Months in Review

2000-10-16
2000-01-2817
The key diesel emission control papers of the last 12 months have been summarized. In addition, the emerging US and European light-duty and heavy-duty tailpipe regulations are compared. Results are reported on light-duty diesel filtration regeneration systems and experiences, including effects of ash build-up and some recent modeling work. On the heavy-duty side, optimization of SCR catalysts and systems are described, as well as experiences with the first integrated SCR/filter systems, which are already achieving “Euro V” 2008 standards. An update on NOx adsorbers is also provided. The results with new NOx formulations are described, as well as the system performance in a light-duty diesel application.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2001-03-05
2001-01-0184
This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art in diesel emission control. The nature of diesel particulates is summarized. The variety of diesel particulate filter regeneration strategies that will become so important to filter application are reviewed. Filter retrofit and durability issues are addressed. DeNOx catalysts, SCR, NOx traps for diesel, and non-thermal plasma methods are summarized. Integrated NOx/PM systems are described. And reduction of exhaust toxics is discussed. The paper covers all major conferences in the year 2000 that occurred in the US and Europe. US and Europe.
Journal Article

Diesel Emissions in Review

2011-04-12
2011-01-0304
This review summarizes the latest developments in diesel emissions regarding regulations, engines, NOx (nitrogen oxides) control, particulate matter (PM) reductions, and hydrocarbon (HC) and CO oxidation. Regulations are advancing with proposals for 70% tightening of fleet average light-duty (LD) criteria emissions likely to be proposed in California for ~2016-22. CO₂ regulations in both the heavy- and light-duty sectors will also tighten and impact diesel engines and emissions, probably long into the future. Engine technology is addressing these needs. Light-duty diesel engines are making incremental gains with combustion enhancements that allow downsizing for CO₂ savings. Heavy-duty (HD) engine show trade-offs between hardware recipes, exhaust deNOx control, and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration: Thermal Management Through Filter Design

2000-10-16
2000-01-2847
Honeycomb based diesel particulate filters have proven to be extremely effective in the removal of diesel soot. Under certain conditions, involving heavy soot loads and a shift of the engine into the idle mode during the early stages of the regeneration process, the current designs of cordierite filters have shown some tendency toward partial melting. A brief review of the SAE literature is presented, indicating that the temperatures reached during regeneration decrease substantially as the bulk heat capacity of the filter increases. Analysis of these literature data indicates that the top temperatures experienced during regeneration can be decreased by hundreds of degrees, by relatively modest increases in the bulk heat capacity of the bodies. New data are presented confirming how the top temperature varies with different filter designs in which the bulk heat capacity varies.
Book

Diesel Particulate Filter Technology

2007-03-28
Until recently, the complexity of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has hindered its commercial success. Stringent regulations of diesel emissions has lead to advancements in this technology, therefore mainstreaming the use of DPFs in light- and heavy-duty diesel filtration applications. This book covers the latest and most important research in DPF systems, focusing mainly on the advancements of the years 2002-2006. Editor Timothy V. Johnson selected the top 29 SAE papers covering the most significant research in this technology.
Technical Paper

Durability of Extruded Electrically Heated Catalysts

1995-02-01
950404
Extruded metal honeycombs are used as electrically heated catalysts (EHCs). The durability requirements of this application make demands on high surface area, thin cross-section metal honeycombs. Significant durability improvements over previous extruded metal honeycomb EHCs have been achieved by material and package design changes. The product redesign was supported by finite element models and extensive testing. The redesigned EHC has passed severe laboratory and field testing. The tests include electrical cycling to 1000°C/1600 cycles, hot vibration to 60g/900°C and demanding on-vehicle exposure. Excellent durability of the extruded metal honeycomb has been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ash on Gasoline Particulate Filter Using an Accelerated Ash Loading Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1258
Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is considered a suitable solution to meet the increasingly stringent particle number (PN) regulations for both gasoline direct injection (GDI) and multi-port fuel injection (MPI) engines. Generally, GDI engines emit more particulate matter (PM) and PN. In recent years, GDI engines have gained significant market penetration in the automobile industry owing to better fuel economy and drivability. In this study, an accelerated ash loading method was tested by doping lubricating oil into the fuel for a GDI engine. Emission tests were performed at different ash loads with different driving cycles and GPF combinations. The results showed that the GPF could significantly reduce particle emissions to meet the China 6 regulation. With further ash loading, the filtration efficiency increased above 99% and the effects on fuel consumption and backpressure were found to be limited, even with an ash loading of up to 50 g/l.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cell Geometry on Emissions Performance of Ceramic Catalytic Converters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0354
More stringent emissions regulations, space limitations for catalytic converters in modern automotive applications, and new engine technologies constitute design challenges for today's engineers. In that context high cell density thinwall and ultrathinwall ceramic substrates have been designed into advanced catalytic converters. Whereas the majority of these substrates have a square cell geometry, a potential for further emissions improvement has been predicted for hexagonal cell structures. In order to verify these predictions, a ceramic substrate has been developed combining the features of high cell density, ultrathin cell walls, and hexagonal cell structure. Based on modeling data, the actual cell density and wall thickness of the hexagonal cell substrate will be defined. The performance of that substrate will be assessed by comparing experimental emissions results using two modern Volkswagen engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of Microstructure and Cell Geometry on Performance of Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0193
Cordierite has been the cost-effective material of choice for diesel particulate filters (DPFs) for heavy duty vehicles due to its combination of excellent thermal shock resistance, filtration efficiency, and durability under most operating conditions. However, it has been observed that under some conditions of uncontrolled regeneration at moderately high soot loading, localized regions of melting in cordierite DPF bodies can occur. A new cordierite monolithic diesel particulate filter has been developed for medium and heavy duty trucks for OEM and retrofit applications. Through modification in pore microstructure and filter cell geometry, this new DPF provides improved survivability during uncontrolled regenerations, reduced pressure drop, and improved thermal shock resistance and strength.
Technical Paper

High Porosity Substrates for Fast-Light-Off Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1009
Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Compressive Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

1995-02-01
950787
High temperature modulus of rupture (MOR) data, published previously, show that the ceramic catalyst supports get stronger with temperature due to the absence of water vapor and closure of microcracks which would otherwise act as stress concentrators [1, 2 and 3]*. The increased MOR value is partially responsible for the excellent durability of ceramic catalyst supports at high temperature. In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. Since the honeycomb strength is directly related to that of the individual cell wall, the compressive strength should also increase with temperature similar to the modulus of rupture. Accordingly, the ceramic substrates are capable of supporting higher mounting pressures exerted by the intumescent mat at high temperature [4].
Technical Paper

High Temperature Durability of Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Support

1994-03-01
940782
The design, performance and optimization of the extruded electrically heated metal converter have recently been published(1,2). The present paper focuses on the physical durability of extruded metal EHC support at high temperature representative of operating conditions. The mechanical, thermal, creep and fatigue properties of Fe-Cr-Al honeycomb structure over 25°-1000°C temperature range are reported. In addition, the stresses arising from mounting and thermal loads are computed via finite element analysis and compared with the high temperature strength of extruded metal EHC support. A safe design stress which predicts 192,000 kilometer durability is estimated from high temperature fatigue behavior of extruded Fe-Cr-Al honeycomb structure.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0909
Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation on a Novel Reactor Design for Emission Control Catalysts -Modeling and Experimental Results-

2001-03-05
2001-01-0928
It is well known that the catalytic efficiency and durability of an automotive catalytic converter can be significantly affected by its design. This paper demonstrates the potential for further improvement in both the durability and efficiency by using a novel catalytic converter concept based on a large frontal area, high cell density substrate. This concept requires that attention be paid to optimization of the flow as well as of the mounting system. The converter design is determined with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation and the effect of this design on the temperature distribution in the substrate is calculated and measured. Due to this novel converter concept the maximum substrate temperature is reduced, which results in a better aging behavior. This improvement allows a reduction in precious metal content without a loss in efficiency.
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