Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2016-04-05
2016-01-0919
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2015. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Euro 6 type regulations for Beijing, China, and India in the 2017-20 timeframe. Europe is continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards with the conformity factors for light-duty diesel NOx ramping down to 1.5X by 2021. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations. LD gasoline concepts are achieving 45% BTE (brake thermal efficiency or net amount of fuel energy gong to the crankshaft) and closing the gap with diesel.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2012-04-16
2012-01-0368
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2011. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the newly proposed PN (particle number) regulation for direct injection gasoline engines, test cycle development, and in-use testing discussions. The proposed US LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25 is reviewed, as well as the finalized, first-ever, US HD (heavy-duty) GHG rule for 2014-17. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key emissions developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Emissions challenges include lean NOx remediation for diesel and lean-burn gasoline to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2014-04-01
2014-01-1491
The review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed light-duty (LD) criteria pollutant tightening in the US; and in Europe, the continuing developments towards real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. Significant shifts are occurring in China and India in addressing their severe air quality problems. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels. Projections are that we are in the early stages of oil supply stability, which could stabilize fuel prices. LD and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are or will soon be demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency using common approaches.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0911
As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thinwall Light-off Performance - Varying Substrates, Catalysts, and Flow Rates; Models and Engine Testing

2002-03-04
2002-01-0352
To establish performance trends in ultra thin wall substrates and help support their selection criteria for designing catalytic converter systems, the light-off behavior of five Ultra Thin Wall ceramic substrates and two catalysts on an engine dynamometer are hereby examined. Modeling predictions are also compared to the engine results and the trends and implications are discussed. To quantify the performance of these different systems, light-off tests were performed on an engine dynamometer using a simulated FTP cycle. Five systems were evaluated (600/4, 600/3, 600/2, 900/2 and 1200/2) each with two different catalyst formulations. Engine bench aging was used to simulate typical aged conditions in the converter systems. Second by second emissions data for temperature, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates.
Technical Paper

Thermal Durability of a Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filter for Light Duty Vehicles

1992-02-01
920143
The thermal durability of a large frontal area cordierite ceramic wall-flow filter for light-duty diesel engine is examined under various regeneration conditions. The radial temperature distribution during burner regeneration, obtained by eight different thermocouples at six different axial sections of a 75″ diameter x 8″ long filter, is used together with physical properties of the filter to compute thermal stresses via finite element analysis. The stress-time history of the filter is then compared with the strength and fatigue characteristics of extruded cordierite ceramic monolith. The successful performance of the filter over as many as 1000 regenerations is attributed to three important design parameters, namely unique filter properties, controlled regeneration conditions, and optimum packaging design. The latter induces significant radial and axial compression in the filter thereby enhancing its strength and reducing the operating stresses.
Technical Paper

The Design of Automotive Catalyst Supports for Improved Pressure Drop and Conversion Efficiency

1991-02-01
910371
The current automotive catalytic converter is highly dependable and provides excellent emissions reduction while at the same time it offers little resistance to the flow of gasses through the exhaust system. As automobile performance requirements increase, and as the allowable tailpipe emissions are tightened, there is a need on the one hand to reduce the back pressure even further, and on the other, to increase the already excellent catalytic performance. This paper will analyze the substrate factors which influence the pressure drop and conversion efficiency of the catalyst system. The converter frontal area has the most significant influence on both pressure drop and conversion efficiency, followed in order by part length, cell density, and wall thickness.
Technical Paper

Technique for the Analysis of FTP Emissions

1992-02-01
920724
Previous papers have considered the role of the substrate in the catalyst system. It has been shown that the total catalyzed surface area of the substrate (defined as the substrate geometric surface area multiplied by the substrate volume) can act as a surrogate for the catalyst performance. The substrate affects the back pressure of the exhaust system and therefore, the available power. Relationships have been developed between the substrate physical characteristics, and both the pressure drop and total surface area of the substrate. The substrate pressure drop has also been related to power loss. What has been lacking is a means of quantitatively relating the substrate properties to the conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a simple relationship between the substrate total surface area and the emissions of the vehicle as measured on the FTP cycle.
Technical Paper

Shear Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2001-03-05
2001-01-0935
An analytical model for estimating shear and bending stresses during canning of cordierite ceramic catalyst supports is presented. These stresses arise when the radial pressure distribution is nonuniform due, primarily, to variations in gap bulk density (GBD ) of intumescent mat around the perimeter of the substrate. Variations in GBD can occur during canning, regardless of the canning technique, due to anisotropic can stiffness or component tolerances or mat overlap. The model helps relate shear and bending stresses to substrate size and orientation, elastic modulii, cell size and wall porosity. If these stresses approach the corresponding strength of substrate, a shear crack may develop during or after the canning process depending on the magnitude of stress. A special test fixture was developed to measure the shear strength of ceramic catalyst supports, with different cell sizes, before and after the application of washcoat.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicular Emissions Trends

2015-04-14
2015-01-0993
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2014. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Non-Road Mobile Machinery regulations for 2019-20 in Europe, and the continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards. An expert panel in India proposed a roadmap through 2025 for clean fuels and tailpipe regulations. LD (light duty) and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% brake thermal efficiency using methods that can reasonably be commercialized. Next, NOx control technologies are summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction), lean NOx traps, and combination systems. Emphasis is on durability and control.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0329
This review article summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2017. The article starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European light-duty (LD) CO2 regulations (15 and 30% cuts in 2025 and 2030, respectively, from 2020 levels) and technical improvements of the Euro 6 real driving emissions (RDE) regulations. China finalized their new energy vehicle (NEV) mandates for 2019 and 2020. LD and heavy-duty (HD) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations. Several LD gasoline concepts are achieving 10-15% and some up to 35% reductions relative to gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines of today.
Technical Paper

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0907
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0314
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2018 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies.
Journal Article

Review of Diesel Emissions and Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0301
This review summarizes the latest developments in diesel emissions regarding regulations, engines, NOx (nitrogen oxides) control, particulate matter (PM) reductions, and hydrocarbon (HC) and CO oxidation. Regulations are advancing with proposals for PN (particle number) regulations that require diesel particulate filters (DPFs) for Euro VI in 2013-14, and SULEV (super ultra low emission vehicle) fleet average light-duty (LD) emissions likely to be proposed in California for ~2017. CO₂ regulations will also impact diesel engines and emissions, probably long into the future. Engine technology is addressing these needs. Heavy-duty (HD) research engines show 90% lower NOx at the same PM or fuel consumption levels as a reference 2007 production engine. Work is starting on HD gasoline engines with promising results. In light duty (LD), engine downsizing is progressing and deNOx is emerging as a fuel savings strategy.
Journal Article

Review of CO2 Emissions and Technologies in the Road Transportation Sector

2010-04-12
2010-01-1276
The topic of CO₂ and fuel consumption reductions from vehicles is a very broad and complex issue, encompassing vehicle regulations, biofuel mandates, and a vast assortment of engine and vehicle technologies. This paper attempts to provide a high-level review of all these issues. Reducing fuel consumption appears not to be driven by the amount of hydrocarbon reserves, but by energy security and climate change issues. Regarding the latter, a plan was proposed by the United Nations for upwards of 80% CO₂ reductions from 1990 levels by 2050. Regulators are beginning to respond by requiring ~25% reductions in CO₂ emissions from light-duty vehicles by 2016 in major world markets, with more to come. The heavy-duty sector is poised to follow. Similarly, fuel policy is aimed at energy diversity (security) and climate change impacts. Emerging biofuel mandates require nominally 5-10% CO₂ life cycle emissions reductions by 2020.
Journal Article

Reliability Evaluation of Thin, Lightweight Laminates for Windshield Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1401
The use of lightweight materials to produce automotive glazing is being pursued by vehicle manufacturers in an effort to improve fuel economy. As glazing’s become thinner, reduced rigidity means that the critical flaw size needed to create fracture becomes much smaller due to increased strain under load or impact. This paper documents experiments focused on the impact performance of several alternative thin laminate constructions under consideration for windshield applications (including conventional annealed soda-lime glass as well as laminates utilizing chemically strengthened glass), for the purpose of identifying new and unique failure modes that result from thickness reduction. Regulatory impact tests and experiments that focused on functional performance of laminates were conducted. Given the increased sensitivity to flaw size for thin laminates, controlled surface damage was introduced to parts prior to conducting the functional performance tests.
Book

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

2018-11-28
For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.
Technical Paper

Reduced Energy and Power Consumption for Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Converters

1993-03-01
930383
Improved designs of extruded metal electrically heated catalysts (EHC) in combination with a traditional converter achieved the California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standard utilizing 50% less electrical energy than previous prototypes. This energy reduction is largely achieved by reducing the mass of the EHC. In addition to energy reduction, the battery voltage is reduced from 24 volts to 12 volts, and the power is reduced from 12 kilowatts to 3 kilowatts. Also discussed is the impact EHC mass, EHC catalytic activity, and no EHC preheating has on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions, energy requirements, and power requirements.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

2006-10-16
2006-01-3257
In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Validation of Pressure Drop for Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

2003-03-03
2003-01-0843
To meet the future emission targets for Diesel engines, one trend is the use of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPF). Catalyzing the filter, however, alters filter behavior. In particular, alteration in filter permeability imparts a significant change in the filter's performance. To understand the impact of the catalyst coating on a DPF, engine tests have been conducted to measure the pressure drop across DPFs with different catalyst coatings, cell densities, and soot loadings. The tests were performed over a range of engine speeds and loads, with a corresponding range in exhaust flow rates and temperatures. A pressure drop model based on previous work for uncatalyzed filters has been modified and validated for CDPFs. To achieve optimum design for DPF's, a parametric study comparing the influence of catalyst, cell density, wall thickness, filter length and diameter was done.
X