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Technical Paper

Transient Emissions from an Uncolled Diesel Engine

A Cummins B55 in3 350 bhp heavy-duty, turbocharged diesel engine was tested in fully cooled and uncooled modes over the EPA transient emission test cycles for comparison of gaseous and particulate emissions. The results are presented at the same fuel injection timing and at similar NOx emission levels. Also, steady state emission measurements and analysis of real-time transient emission data of selected runs are discussed. The uncooled engine does not represent an adiabatic (insulated) engine in its emission characateristics, but may indicate some trends. It may be useful in identifying design and/or operating parameters that need optimization.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Emission Transients By Mass Spectrometry

High-speed diagnostics capable of accurately resolving emission transients are required to provide the most detailed understanding and optimization of active exhaust-emissions-treatment processes, such as NOX adsorbers. A portable, mass-spectrometry-based instrument with high temporal resolution, linear response and broad dynamic range is described. This instrument provides transient-concentration measurement capability for many relevant exhaust species including total NOX. In applications for evaluation of NOX-adsorber systems using heavy-duty diesel engines, the instrument revealed relevant emission transients not previously resolved with conventional analyzers. Specifically, the instrument resolved transient emissions associated with the competition between desorption and reduction rates. The temporal resolution of the instruments is sufficient to resolve kinetic rates of the NOX-adsorber system.
Technical Paper

The Pivotal Role of Crankcase Oil in Preventing Soot Wear and Extending Filter Life in Low Emission Diesel Engines

In order to meet EPA's emission requirements for 1999 diesel engines, soot levels in the crankcase oil will increase significantly due to retarded timing to lower NOx. This study uses the Cummins M11 engine at soot levels up to 9% in the crankcase oil to demonstrate how oils can be formulated to prevent valve train wear, extend filter life, and maintain oil pumpability. The study includes the oil formulation development and the evaluation of API CG-4/SJ oils at 4.5% soot and API CH-4/SJ oils at 9% soot. In addition it includes X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for surface film analysis and Surface Optical Profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the valve train valve-bridges and rocker pads to determine the mechanism of failure. The oil's low temperature rheology as it affects oil pumpability is defined by Mini Rotary Viscometer (MRV TP-1), Scanning Brookfield Test (SBT), and Cold Cranking Simulator (CCS).
Technical Paper

The Lubricity Requirement of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels

An engine rig test and a scuffing BOCLE test have been used to investigate the lubricity of low sulfur diesel fuels and its relationship with unit injector wear in heavy duty diesel engines. The rig test effectively ranks 11 selected fuels/fluids according to their actual performance. The scuffing BOCLE test correlates with the rig test by showing the same ranking capability, and it is easy to perform. A similar correlation has been established using ISO reference fuels. The scuffing BOCLE test has been used to study 37 fuels randomly sampled from the field. The data shows that there is indeed a reduction in lubricity of low sulfur fuels. The variation in lubricity of low sulfur fuels is also much greater than high sulfur fuels. Data in this study shows that transition from good to poor lubricity usually occurs between 2500 to 3000 grams in the scuffing BOCLE.
Technical Paper

The Cummins A3.4-125: A Charge Cooled IDI Turbo Diesel for the 1991 US Light-Heavy Duty Market

The Cummins A3.4-125 (rated 93 kW at 3600 rpm) has been developed to meet 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, replacing the Cummins 6AT3.4 (formerly Onan L634T-A). Compliance with the stringent particulate standard has been achieved by redesigning the combustion chamber, a systematic oil control program, and charge air cooling. The Ricardo Comet combustion chamber was modified to a downstream glowplug configuration. Oil control efforts addressed all sources of oil derived particulate. With charge air cooling, NOx emissions were reduced while improving fuel economy, torque output, altitude capability, and engine durability. THE CUMMINS A3.4-125 is an evolutionary development of the 1988-90 6AT3.4 engine. The development was driven primarily by 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, but also was the result of a policy of continuous product improvement. The Cummins A Series diesel engine family was conceived as the Onan L Series (1*).
Technical Paper

TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program

This paper discusses the goals, progress, and future plans of the TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program. The Adiabatic Engine concept insulates the diesel combustion chamber with high temperature materials to allow hot operation near an adiabatic operation condition. Additional power and improved efficiency derived from this concept occur because thermal energy, normally lost to the cooling and exhaust systems, is converted to useful power through the use of turbomachinery and high-temperature materials. Engine testing has repeatedly demonstrated the Adiabatic Engine to be the most fuel efficient engine in the world with multi-cylinder engine performance levels of 0.285 LB/BHP-HR (48% thermal efficiency) at 450 HP representative. Installation of an early version of the Adiabatic Engine within a military 5 ton truck has been completed, with initial vehicle evaluation successfully accomplished.
Technical Paper

Survey of Winter '93 Low Sulphur Diesel Fuels in the U.S.

Reports of disabling diesel engine seal failures which accompanied the introduction of low sulfur diesel fuel in October '93 prompted an in-depth survey of diesel fuel chemical and physical properties. The purpose of the survey was to anticipate other possible problems which might arise with the newly introduced low sulfur fuels. The survey will produce a database containing over 1000 number 2 diesel fuels from various parts of the US. About 75% of the samples tested were on-highway low sulfur diesel fuels. Samples analyzed were from the D-A Lubricant Company, Cummins customers failures (truck fleets of various sizes), and a number of retail fueling stations. Properties under investigation are % Sulfur, Cloud/Pour Points, Viscosity, API Gravity, TAN/TBN, Boiling Range, Aromatics content, Heat Content, Lubricity, and Peroxide number.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Lubrication System of a Diesel Engine

The entire engine lubrication system has been represented by a series-parallel network of flow passages and flow elements. The pressure distribution and flow rates in the network were computed according to pressure-flow characteristics of each element. The pressure-flow relationship for each network element was estimated using empirical pipe friction, expansion, and bend loss coefficients, as well as by using test rig results and a steady-state journal bearing model. The journal bearing model is basically that of the classical short bearing model with provision for heat transfer to the oil and the relative thermal growth of the journal and bearing system. When compared with diesel engine tests, the simulation predicted the pressure distribution throughout the engine and the flow rate through each branch within 10%.
Technical Paper

Selection of the Optimized Aftercooling System for Cummins Premium Diesel Engines

The ongoing need for improved fuel economy, longer engine life, lower emissions, and in some cases, increased power output makes lower charge air temperatures more desirable. In 1983, Cummins introduced the new BCIV engine at 400 H.P. (298 KW) with “Optimized Aftercooling”, and is now introducing this concept to its remaining 10 and 14 Litre premium diesel engines. This Tuned Low Flow Cooling design provides many advantages when compared to the other alternatives studied, which included air-to-air and systems incorporating two radiators. The selection process considered performance, durability, fuel economy, emissions, noise, investment, and total vehicle installed cost. Computer simulations and vehicle tests were used to determine performance for each charge air cooling alternative. The simulations were used to guide prototype development and the selection of production hardware.
Technical Paper

Scuff Resistance Rig Test for Piston Ring Face Coatings

A laboratory method has been developed to rank the scuff resistance of piston ring coatings. This method employs a standard wear test apparatus with a specially designed sample holder. Scuff resistance of electrolytic chrome, thermal spray and physical vapor deposition (PVD) face coatings have been examined. Based on this method, examined PVD coatings produced the highest scuff resistance of all the tested face coatings.
Technical Paper

Resistance of 40% Glass-Reinforced PPS to Automotive Underhood Fluids

Laboratory tests have shown that 40% glass-reinforced PPS is suitable for automotive underhood use where it comes into contact with used engine oil, gasoline/alcohol, gasoline/MTBE, water, water/ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid, and transmission fluid at elevated temperatures. On exposure to water or water/ethylene glycol at 248° F (120° C) and 257°F (125°C), respectively, there is a sharp decline in mechanical strength in the first few weeks with little change thereafter. The residual strength of the 40% glass-reinforced PPS is comparable to, or better than other materials, such as phenolics, which have proved satisfactory in such usage. These results have been translated to successful applications in heavy duty diesel engines. Piston cooling nozzles and water pump impellers made of 40% glass-reinforced PPS have undergone successful engine component evaluations.
Technical Paper

Reducing Compression Brake Noise

A survey is made of compression brake noise levels in heavy duty diesel trucks, using test procedures based on the ISO and EPA driveby acceleration noise tests. The data shows that compression brake noise levels are very high if worn out or open stack exhaust systems are used. Compression brake noise is also audible with OEM exhaust systems and, in at least one case, potentially objectionable. Two methods for reducing brake noise are investigated: improved mufflers and the use of an exhaust brake with the compression brake. Both techniques demonstrate a potential for reducing compression brake noise.
Technical Paper

Reduced Cross Section Compression Rings for Diesel Engines

Compression rings for heavy duty diesel engines are traditionally made of ductile cast iron material. These rings, in general, have conservative standard dimensions limited by the strength of their base material. More recently, however, the market for heavy duty diesel engines demanded products able to cope with high levels of power density and, at the same time, lower levels of oil consumption, friction, and emissions. This paper discusses the advantages of some radical changes made on the design of compression rings in order to take advantage of steel as the base material. The superior mechanical properties of steel allow the use of rings with smaller cross sections which minimizes the friction losses caused by the combustion gas pressure pushing the ring against the liner. It also allows the use of compression rings with a free gap significantly larger than usual.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Radiated Noise from Engine Components Using the BEM and the Rayleigh Integral

This paper examines the feasibility of using the boundary element method (BEM) and the Rayleigh integral to assess the sound radiation from engine components such as oil pans. Two oil pans, one cast aluminum and the other stamped steel, are used in the study. All numerical results are compared to running engine data obtained for each of these oil pans on a Cummins engine. Measured running-engine surface velocity data are used as input to the BEM calculations. The BEM models of the oil pains are baffled in various ways to determine the feasibility of analyzing the sound radiated from the oil pan in isolation of the engine. Two baffling conditions are considered: an infinite baffle in which the edge of the oil pan are attached to an infinite, flat surface; and a closed baffle in which the edge of the oil pan is sealed with a rigid structure. It is shown that either of these methods gives satisfactory results when compared to experiment.
Technical Paper

Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: A Preliminary Evaluation

The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity. Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Ceramic Rotor in a Cummins T46 Turbocharger

This paper documents the successful operation of a modified Cummins T46 turbocharger with a ceramic rotor. This turbocharger is modified to incorporate a 4.6 inch diameter ceramic turbine rotor (pressureless sintered silicon nitride) on the hot end. These results document the most complete ceramic turbine rotor performance map, for a large ceramic turbocharger rotor, available to date.
Technical Paper

Performance and Operational Characteristics of High-Powered Diesel Truck Engines

There has been an accelerated growth in power of diesel engines in United States line haul trucking. This paper analyzes the effect of high power on engine-related operating variables that occur under different highway conditions and dissimilar terrain features. When properly applied, high-powered diesel engines can increase average vehicle speed and/or fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Fluid Flow Calculations in Diesel Engine Exhaust Valve-Port Geometries

In this paper, two approaches are presented for steady state fluid flow calculations in complex diesel engine exhaust valve-port geometries. The first one simplifies the geometry and concentrates on the fine details in the valve seat region using two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. Various configurations are examined to show the usefulness of the approach for design purposes. The second approach is illustrated by a full 3-D simulation of the flow in a complex cylinder-valve-port geometry with two exhaust valves. Details are presented on the generation of the geometry and the mesh, and important flow features from the CFD solution are described. For both approaches, limited available experimental information is presented in support of the computational results.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of the Effect of Wall Temperature on Instantaneous Heat Flux

Measurements of instantaneous temperature were made at three locations on the cylinder head of a direct injection diesel engine. Changes in calculated instantaneous heat flux with changes in cylinder head surface temperature were assessed. The results were used in an assessment of various approaches to the description of instantaneous heat transfer incorporated in diesel cycle simulations. It was concluded that changes in the thermal boundary layer thickness throughout the cycle could account for some of the observed phenomena. A close correlation was seen between the heat transfer measured here and earlier published studies of measured boundary layer thickness. Some additional indications from the measurements point to a significant thermal capacitance of the boundary layer. Additional work is needed to further understand the potential ramifications of this effect.
Technical Paper

J1939 High Speed Serial Communications, The Next Generation Network for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Data link interfaces are a very important part of the heavy duty vehicle industry; sharing information between subsystems is vital. SAE Recommended Practices J1708, J1587 and J1922 were developed to provide standards for proprietary communications, general information sharing, diagnostic definition and early powertrain controls. The industry realized, however, that these standards would not accomplish the ultimate goal-that of a high speed control and communications network. The development of more capable serial data communications for the heavy duty vehicle industry was prompted by the following: the desire of component suppliers to integrate subsystems for improved performance; the advancement of technology; customer expectations; and government regulations.