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Technical Paper

The Cummins A3.4-125: A Charge Cooled IDI Turbo Diesel for the 1991 US Light-Heavy Duty Market

The Cummins A3.4-125 (rated 93 kW at 3600 rpm) has been developed to meet 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, replacing the Cummins 6AT3.4 (formerly Onan L634T-A). Compliance with the stringent particulate standard has been achieved by redesigning the combustion chamber, a systematic oil control program, and charge air cooling. The Ricardo Comet combustion chamber was modified to a downstream glowplug configuration. Oil control efforts addressed all sources of oil derived particulate. With charge air cooling, NOx emissions were reduced while improving fuel economy, torque output, altitude capability, and engine durability. THE CUMMINS A3.4-125 is an evolutionary development of the 1988-90 6AT3.4 engine. The development was driven primarily by 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, but also was the result of a policy of continuous product improvement. The Cummins A Series diesel engine family was conceived as the Onan L Series (1*).
Technical Paper

TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program

This paper discusses the goals, progress, and future plans of the TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program. The Adiabatic Engine concept insulates the diesel combustion chamber with high temperature materials to allow hot operation near an adiabatic operation condition. Additional power and improved efficiency derived from this concept occur because thermal energy, normally lost to the cooling and exhaust systems, is converted to useful power through the use of turbomachinery and high-temperature materials. Engine testing has repeatedly demonstrated the Adiabatic Engine to be the most fuel efficient engine in the world with multi-cylinder engine performance levels of 0.285 LB/BHP-HR (48% thermal efficiency) at 450 HP representative. Installation of an early version of the Adiabatic Engine within a military 5 ton truck has been completed, with initial vehicle evaluation successfully accomplished.
Technical Paper

Scuff Resistance Rig Test for Piston Ring Face Coatings

A laboratory method has been developed to rank the scuff resistance of piston ring coatings. This method employs a standard wear test apparatus with a specially designed sample holder. Scuff resistance of electrolytic chrome, thermal spray and physical vapor deposition (PVD) face coatings have been examined. Based on this method, examined PVD coatings produced the highest scuff resistance of all the tested face coatings.
Technical Paper

Resistance of 40% Glass-Reinforced PPS to Automotive Underhood Fluids

Laboratory tests have shown that 40% glass-reinforced PPS is suitable for automotive underhood use where it comes into contact with used engine oil, gasoline/alcohol, gasoline/MTBE, water, water/ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid, and transmission fluid at elevated temperatures. On exposure to water or water/ethylene glycol at 248° F (120° C) and 257°F (125°C), respectively, there is a sharp decline in mechanical strength in the first few weeks with little change thereafter. The residual strength of the 40% glass-reinforced PPS is comparable to, or better than other materials, such as phenolics, which have proved satisfactory in such usage. These results have been translated to successful applications in heavy duty diesel engines. Piston cooling nozzles and water pump impellers made of 40% glass-reinforced PPS have undergone successful engine component evaluations.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Radiated Noise from Engine Components Using the BEM and the Rayleigh Integral

This paper examines the feasibility of using the boundary element method (BEM) and the Rayleigh integral to assess the sound radiation from engine components such as oil pans. Two oil pans, one cast aluminum and the other stamped steel, are used in the study. All numerical results are compared to running engine data obtained for each of these oil pans on a Cummins engine. Measured running-engine surface velocity data are used as input to the BEM calculations. The BEM models of the oil pains are baffled in various ways to determine the feasibility of analyzing the sound radiated from the oil pan in isolation of the engine. Two baffling conditions are considered: an infinite baffle in which the edge of the oil pan are attached to an infinite, flat surface; and a closed baffle in which the edge of the oil pan is sealed with a rigid structure. It is shown that either of these methods gives satisfactory results when compared to experiment.
Technical Paper

Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: A Preliminary Evaluation

The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity. Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Ceramic Rotor in a Cummins T46 Turbocharger

This paper documents the successful operation of a modified Cummins T46 turbocharger with a ceramic rotor. This turbocharger is modified to incorporate a 4.6 inch diameter ceramic turbine rotor (pressureless sintered silicon nitride) on the hot end. These results document the most complete ceramic turbine rotor performance map, for a large ceramic turbocharger rotor, available to date.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of the Effect of Wall Temperature on Instantaneous Heat Flux

Measurements of instantaneous temperature were made at three locations on the cylinder head of a direct injection diesel engine. Changes in calculated instantaneous heat flux with changes in cylinder head surface temperature were assessed. The results were used in an assessment of various approaches to the description of instantaneous heat transfer incorporated in diesel cycle simulations. It was concluded that changes in the thermal boundary layer thickness throughout the cycle could account for some of the observed phenomena. A close correlation was seen between the heat transfer measured here and earlier published studies of measured boundary layer thickness. Some additional indications from the measurements point to a significant thermal capacitance of the boundary layer. Additional work is needed to further understand the potential ramifications of this effect.
Technical Paper

HVOF Cermet Coatings for High Horse Power Diesel Engines

High Velocity Oxygen Fuel sprayed face coatings have shown great promise for piston rings used for High Power Density Diesel Engines. Various coatings have been tested on both wear test rigs and in engines. A highly dense HVOF cermet coating was developed with reasonable crack resistance during service. The HVOF coated piston rings wore three to six times lower than chrome plating. Cylinder liner (counter face) wear was found to be one to three times higher than chrome. However, engine oil consumption and blow by were within normal values. The HVOF coating is considered to be an excellent replacement for chrome plating. The coating process is more environmentally friendly than the chrome plating process. Also, the coating has potentially lower or equivalent production cost when compared to chrome.
Technical Paper

Exploring PVD Coatings for Cylinder Liner Applications

A number of wear resistant coatings has been developed using physical vapor deposition(PVD) process. However this coating process has not yet been widely used in the automotive industry. The purpose of this work was to evaluate thin PVD coatings such as diamond like carbon doped with tungsten (W-DLC), molybdenum-disulfide doped with aluminum (MoS2-Al), and chrome nitride (CrN). Some of these coatings were previously found to have low friction, high wear resistance, or both when tested in unlubricated conditions. In the present work, the experiments were conducted using a Cameron-Plint apparatus in lubricated conditions. The ring counterfaces used were Cr-plated and gas-nitrided compression rings. Our data also indicated that some PVD coatings with thicknesses in the same order of magnitude as the surface roughness of the liners did show some improvement in liner wear resistance. The suitability of thin coatings for liner applications needs additional study.
Technical Paper

Diesel Piston Debond - A Perspective

Diesel engine operation under high load conditions (>45 hp/cyl) may result in piston “debond” in which the Ni-resist ring carrier separates from the aluminum piston matrix leading to destruction of the piston. Historically, engine loads have increased to achieve higher power densities which together with more stringent emissions requirements have resulted in greatly increased stress levels in the piston. The higher stresses have resulted in debond failure. The design of the ring carrier will affect debond failure. Deformation of the ring carrier will initiate debond at the back of the insert at the junction with the piston matrix. The ring carrier cross-section must be made robust enough through proper design to achieve expected reliability. Another factor influencing ring carrier retention is the quality of the AlFin bond layer. Casting defects which arise from the AlFin bonding process, degrade the strength of the joint leading to failure.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Piston Inducing Material, Air Gap, and Thermal Barrier Coating Effects

This work evaluates the thermal and structural integrity of a heavy duty diesel piston using finite element analysis. The effects of aluminum, ductile iron, and superalloy piston materials; air gaps; and plasma-sprayed zirconia coating on piston temperature and stress, as well as on heat flux through the piston, are assessed. The coating lowered the heat flux through the piston 56 percent and caused other changes in the piston to have an insignificant effect on the heat flux. The air gaps had the least effect on heat flux with substantially lower safety margins than pistons without air gaps.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Modified Elevated Temperature HFRR Test Data With Scuffing BOCLE Results

Evolving diesel engine design trends are expected to include fuel systems operating at significantly higher pressures and temperatures than in the past. Accordingly, meaningful laboratory tests are needed to help guide this development. Two candidate test methods were evaluated in this exploratory study. Scuffing Load Ball-on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE) and Modified High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test results covering a range of operating temperatures were compared with fuel property data. Correlations of the Modified HFRR test data with BOCLE results were also made.