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Technical Paper

Transient Emissions from an Uncolled Diesel Engine

A Cummins B55 in3 350 bhp heavy-duty, turbocharged diesel engine was tested in fully cooled and uncooled modes over the EPA transient emission test cycles for comparison of gaseous and particulate emissions. The results are presented at the same fuel injection timing and at similar NOx emission levels. Also, steady state emission measurements and analysis of real-time transient emission data of selected runs are discussed. The uncooled engine does not represent an adiabatic (insulated) engine in its emission characateristics, but may indicate some trends. It may be useful in identifying design and/or operating parameters that need optimization.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Emission Transients By Mass Spectrometry

High-speed diagnostics capable of accurately resolving emission transients are required to provide the most detailed understanding and optimization of active exhaust-emissions-treatment processes, such as NOX adsorbers. A portable, mass-spectrometry-based instrument with high temporal resolution, linear response and broad dynamic range is described. This instrument provides transient-concentration measurement capability for many relevant exhaust species including total NOX. In applications for evaluation of NOX-adsorber systems using heavy-duty diesel engines, the instrument revealed relevant emission transients not previously resolved with conventional analyzers. Specifically, the instrument resolved transient emissions associated with the competition between desorption and reduction rates. The temporal resolution of the instruments is sufficient to resolve kinetic rates of the NOX-adsorber system.
Technical Paper

The Pivotal Role of Crankcase Oil in Preventing Soot Wear and Extending Filter Life in Low Emission Diesel Engines

In order to meet EPA's emission requirements for 1999 diesel engines, soot levels in the crankcase oil will increase significantly due to retarded timing to lower NOx. This study uses the Cummins M11 engine at soot levels up to 9% in the crankcase oil to demonstrate how oils can be formulated to prevent valve train wear, extend filter life, and maintain oil pumpability. The study includes the oil formulation development and the evaluation of API CG-4/SJ oils at 4.5% soot and API CH-4/SJ oils at 9% soot. In addition it includes X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for surface film analysis and Surface Optical Profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the valve train valve-bridges and rocker pads to determine the mechanism of failure. The oil's low temperature rheology as it affects oil pumpability is defined by Mini Rotary Viscometer (MRV TP-1), Scanning Brookfield Test (SBT), and Cold Cranking Simulator (CCS).
Technical Paper

The Lubricity Requirement of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels

An engine rig test and a scuffing BOCLE test have been used to investigate the lubricity of low sulfur diesel fuels and its relationship with unit injector wear in heavy duty diesel engines. The rig test effectively ranks 11 selected fuels/fluids according to their actual performance. The scuffing BOCLE test correlates with the rig test by showing the same ranking capability, and it is easy to perform. A similar correlation has been established using ISO reference fuels. The scuffing BOCLE test has been used to study 37 fuels randomly sampled from the field. The data shows that there is indeed a reduction in lubricity of low sulfur fuels. The variation in lubricity of low sulfur fuels is also much greater than high sulfur fuels. Data in this study shows that transition from good to poor lubricity usually occurs between 2500 to 3000 grams in the scuffing BOCLE.
Technical Paper

The Cummins A3.4-125: A Charge Cooled IDI Turbo Diesel for the 1991 US Light-Heavy Duty Market

The Cummins A3.4-125 (rated 93 kW at 3600 rpm) has been developed to meet 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, replacing the Cummins 6AT3.4 (formerly Onan L634T-A). Compliance with the stringent particulate standard has been achieved by redesigning the combustion chamber, a systematic oil control program, and charge air cooling. The Ricardo Comet combustion chamber was modified to a downstream glowplug configuration. Oil control efforts addressed all sources of oil derived particulate. With charge air cooling, NOx emissions were reduced while improving fuel economy, torque output, altitude capability, and engine durability. THE CUMMINS A3.4-125 is an evolutionary development of the 1988-90 6AT3.4 engine. The development was driven primarily by 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, but also was the result of a policy of continuous product improvement. The Cummins A Series diesel engine family was conceived as the Onan L Series (1*).
Technical Paper

TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program

This paper discusses the goals, progress, and future plans of the TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program. The Adiabatic Engine concept insulates the diesel combustion chamber with high temperature materials to allow hot operation near an adiabatic operation condition. Additional power and improved efficiency derived from this concept occur because thermal energy, normally lost to the cooling and exhaust systems, is converted to useful power through the use of turbomachinery and high-temperature materials. Engine testing has repeatedly demonstrated the Adiabatic Engine to be the most fuel efficient engine in the world with multi-cylinder engine performance levels of 0.285 LB/BHP-HR (48% thermal efficiency) at 450 HP representative. Installation of an early version of the Adiabatic Engine within a military 5 ton truck has been completed, with initial vehicle evaluation successfully accomplished.
Technical Paper

Survey of Winter '93 Low Sulphur Diesel Fuels in the U.S.

Reports of disabling diesel engine seal failures which accompanied the introduction of low sulfur diesel fuel in October '93 prompted an in-depth survey of diesel fuel chemical and physical properties. The purpose of the survey was to anticipate other possible problems which might arise with the newly introduced low sulfur fuels. The survey will produce a database containing over 1000 number 2 diesel fuels from various parts of the US. About 75% of the samples tested were on-highway low sulfur diesel fuels. Samples analyzed were from the D-A Lubricant Company, Cummins customers failures (truck fleets of various sizes), and a number of retail fueling stations. Properties under investigation are % Sulfur, Cloud/Pour Points, Viscosity, API Gravity, TAN/TBN, Boiling Range, Aromatics content, Heat Content, Lubricity, and Peroxide number.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Lubrication System of a Diesel Engine

The entire engine lubrication system has been represented by a series-parallel network of flow passages and flow elements. The pressure distribution and flow rates in the network were computed according to pressure-flow characteristics of each element. The pressure-flow relationship for each network element was estimated using empirical pipe friction, expansion, and bend loss coefficients, as well as by using test rig results and a steady-state journal bearing model. The journal bearing model is basically that of the classical short bearing model with provision for heat transfer to the oil and the relative thermal growth of the journal and bearing system. When compared with diesel engine tests, the simulation predicted the pressure distribution throughout the engine and the flow rate through each branch within 10%.
Technical Paper

Selection of the Optimized Aftercooling System for Cummins Premium Diesel Engines

The ongoing need for improved fuel economy, longer engine life, lower emissions, and in some cases, increased power output makes lower charge air temperatures more desirable. In 1983, Cummins introduced the new BCIV engine at 400 H.P. (298 KW) with “Optimized Aftercooling”, and is now introducing this concept to its remaining 10 and 14 Litre premium diesel engines. This Tuned Low Flow Cooling design provides many advantages when compared to the other alternatives studied, which included air-to-air and systems incorporating two radiators. The selection process considered performance, durability, fuel economy, emissions, noise, investment, and total vehicle installed cost. Computer simulations and vehicle tests were used to determine performance for each charge air cooling alternative. The simulations were used to guide prototype development and the selection of production hardware.
Technical Paper

Scuff Resistance Rig Test for Piston Ring Face Coatings

A laboratory method has been developed to rank the scuff resistance of piston ring coatings. This method employs a standard wear test apparatus with a specially designed sample holder. Scuff resistance of electrolytic chrome, thermal spray and physical vapor deposition (PVD) face coatings have been examined. Based on this method, examined PVD coatings produced the highest scuff resistance of all the tested face coatings.
Technical Paper

Resistance of 40% Glass-Reinforced PPS to Automotive Underhood Fluids

Laboratory tests have shown that 40% glass-reinforced PPS is suitable for automotive underhood use where it comes into contact with used engine oil, gasoline/alcohol, gasoline/MTBE, water, water/ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid, and transmission fluid at elevated temperatures. On exposure to water or water/ethylene glycol at 248° F (120° C) and 257°F (125°C), respectively, there is a sharp decline in mechanical strength in the first few weeks with little change thereafter. The residual strength of the 40% glass-reinforced PPS is comparable to, or better than other materials, such as phenolics, which have proved satisfactory in such usage. These results have been translated to successful applications in heavy duty diesel engines. Piston cooling nozzles and water pump impellers made of 40% glass-reinforced PPS have undergone successful engine component evaluations.
Technical Paper

Reduced Cross Section Compression Rings for Diesel Engines

Compression rings for heavy duty diesel engines are traditionally made of ductile cast iron material. These rings, in general, have conservative standard dimensions limited by the strength of their base material. More recently, however, the market for heavy duty diesel engines demanded products able to cope with high levels of power density and, at the same time, lower levels of oil consumption, friction, and emissions. This paper discusses the advantages of some radical changes made on the design of compression rings in order to take advantage of steel as the base material. The superior mechanical properties of steel allow the use of rings with smaller cross sections which minimizes the friction losses caused by the combustion gas pressure pushing the ring against the liner. It also allows the use of compression rings with a free gap significantly larger than usual.
Technical Paper

Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: A Preliminary Evaluation

The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity. Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Ceramic Rotor in a Cummins T46 Turbocharger

This paper documents the successful operation of a modified Cummins T46 turbocharger with a ceramic rotor. This turbocharger is modified to incorporate a 4.6 inch diameter ceramic turbine rotor (pressureless sintered silicon nitride) on the hot end. These results document the most complete ceramic turbine rotor performance map, for a large ceramic turbocharger rotor, available to date.
Technical Paper

Performance and Operational Characteristics of High-Powered Diesel Truck Engines

There has been an accelerated growth in power of diesel engines in United States line haul trucking. This paper analyzes the effect of high power on engine-related operating variables that occur under different highway conditions and dissimilar terrain features. When properly applied, high-powered diesel engines can increase average vehicle speed and/or fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of the Effect of Wall Temperature on Instantaneous Heat Flux

Measurements of instantaneous temperature were made at three locations on the cylinder head of a direct injection diesel engine. Changes in calculated instantaneous heat flux with changes in cylinder head surface temperature were assessed. The results were used in an assessment of various approaches to the description of instantaneous heat transfer incorporated in diesel cycle simulations. It was concluded that changes in the thermal boundary layer thickness throughout the cycle could account for some of the observed phenomena. A close correlation was seen between the heat transfer measured here and earlier published studies of measured boundary layer thickness. Some additional indications from the measurements point to a significant thermal capacitance of the boundary layer. Additional work is needed to further understand the potential ramifications of this effect.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Liquid Lubricant Development Part I: Engine Tests

A high horsepower, low heat rejection diesel engine is being developed to meet future Army heavy combat vehicle requirements. This engine features high power output in a compact design that is oil-cooled allowing for a significant reduction in radiator size. This design requires a lubricant which can survive a sump temperature of 160°C, for 300 hours with transient sump temperature surges to over 177°C. A comprehensive high temperature lubricant development program has been initiated to address the need for this new design. A modified Cummins 10 liter diesel engine was used to simulate the operating condition of this low heat rejection engine. The premium commercial lubricant that was tested survived only 58 hours before completely losing oxidative stability. Several of the experimental lubricants completed the 200-hour peak torque endurance test.
Technical Paper

HVOF Cermet Coatings for High Horse Power Diesel Engines

High Velocity Oxygen Fuel sprayed face coatings have shown great promise for piston rings used for High Power Density Diesel Engines. Various coatings have been tested on both wear test rigs and in engines. A highly dense HVOF cermet coating was developed with reasonable crack resistance during service. The HVOF coated piston rings wore three to six times lower than chrome plating. Cylinder liner (counter face) wear was found to be one to three times higher than chrome. However, engine oil consumption and blow by were within normal values. The HVOF coating is considered to be an excellent replacement for chrome plating. The coating process is more environmentally friendly than the chrome plating process. Also, the coating has potentially lower or equivalent production cost when compared to chrome.
Technical Paper

Exploring PVD Coatings for Cylinder Liner Applications

A number of wear resistant coatings has been developed using physical vapor deposition(PVD) process. However this coating process has not yet been widely used in the automotive industry. The purpose of this work was to evaluate thin PVD coatings such as diamond like carbon doped with tungsten (W-DLC), molybdenum-disulfide doped with aluminum (MoS2-Al), and chrome nitride (CrN). Some of these coatings were previously found to have low friction, high wear resistance, or both when tested in unlubricated conditions. In the present work, the experiments were conducted using a Cameron-Plint apparatus in lubricated conditions. The ring counterfaces used were Cr-plated and gas-nitrided compression rings. Our data also indicated that some PVD coatings with thicknesses in the same order of magnitude as the surface roughness of the liners did show some improvement in liner wear resistance. The suitability of thin coatings for liner applications needs additional study.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.