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Technical Paper

The Cummins A3.4-125: A Charge Cooled IDI Turbo Diesel for the 1991 US Light-Heavy Duty Market

The Cummins A3.4-125 (rated 93 kW at 3600 rpm) has been developed to meet 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, replacing the Cummins 6AT3.4 (formerly Onan L634T-A). Compliance with the stringent particulate standard has been achieved by redesigning the combustion chamber, a systematic oil control program, and charge air cooling. The Ricardo Comet combustion chamber was modified to a downstream glowplug configuration. Oil control efforts addressed all sources of oil derived particulate. With charge air cooling, NOx emissions were reduced while improving fuel economy, torque output, altitude capability, and engine durability. THE CUMMINS A3.4-125 is an evolutionary development of the 1988-90 6AT3.4 engine. The development was driven primarily by 1991 US and California light-heavy duty emission standards, but also was the result of a policy of continuous product improvement. The Cummins A Series diesel engine family was conceived as the Onan L Series (1*).
Technical Paper

Reducing Compression Brake Noise

A survey is made of compression brake noise levels in heavy duty diesel trucks, using test procedures based on the ISO and EPA driveby acceleration noise tests. The data shows that compression brake noise levels are very high if worn out or open stack exhaust systems are used. Compression brake noise is also audible with OEM exhaust systems and, in at least one case, potentially objectionable. Two methods for reducing brake noise are investigated: improved mufflers and the use of an exhaust brake with the compression brake. Both techniques demonstrate a potential for reducing compression brake noise.
Technical Paper

Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: A Preliminary Evaluation

The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity. Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of the Effect of Wall Temperature on Instantaneous Heat Flux

Measurements of instantaneous temperature were made at three locations on the cylinder head of a direct injection diesel engine. Changes in calculated instantaneous heat flux with changes in cylinder head surface temperature were assessed. The results were used in an assessment of various approaches to the description of instantaneous heat transfer incorporated in diesel cycle simulations. It was concluded that changes in the thermal boundary layer thickness throughout the cycle could account for some of the observed phenomena. A close correlation was seen between the heat transfer measured here and earlier published studies of measured boundary layer thickness. Some additional indications from the measurements point to a significant thermal capacitance of the boundary layer. Additional work is needed to further understand the potential ramifications of this effect.
Technical Paper

J366 Driveby Variability

The EPA Heavy Truck Driveby Noise test is used to regulate trucks over 10,000 pounds GVW. The EPA test procedure is based on SAE J366. The EPA/J366 procedure is used both as a regulatory compliance tool and as a development tool. When the test procedure is used as a development tool, the goal is to determine the most cost effective means of meeting the legal requirement. Since J366 was not intended as a development tool, it can be difficult or misleading to use it to make decisions on product configuration. In order to use J366 successfully in vehicle or engine development, one must understand and properly account for the inherent variability of the J366 driveby test procedure. This paper examines both the extent and some of the sources of J366 driveby test variability. Strategies are proposed to ensure the proper interpretation of test results. Several repeat tests are required to accurately determine a small change in driveby noise level.
Technical Paper

HVOF Cermet Coatings for High Horse Power Diesel Engines

High Velocity Oxygen Fuel sprayed face coatings have shown great promise for piston rings used for High Power Density Diesel Engines. Various coatings have been tested on both wear test rigs and in engines. A highly dense HVOF cermet coating was developed with reasonable crack resistance during service. The HVOF coated piston rings wore three to six times lower than chrome plating. Cylinder liner (counter face) wear was found to be one to three times higher than chrome. However, engine oil consumption and blow by were within normal values. The HVOF coating is considered to be an excellent replacement for chrome plating. The coating process is more environmentally friendly than the chrome plating process. Also, the coating has potentially lower or equivalent production cost when compared to chrome.
Technical Paper

Exploring PVD Coatings for Cylinder Liner Applications

A number of wear resistant coatings has been developed using physical vapor deposition(PVD) process. However this coating process has not yet been widely used in the automotive industry. The purpose of this work was to evaluate thin PVD coatings such as diamond like carbon doped with tungsten (W-DLC), molybdenum-disulfide doped with aluminum (MoS2-Al), and chrome nitride (CrN). Some of these coatings were previously found to have low friction, high wear resistance, or both when tested in unlubricated conditions. In the present work, the experiments were conducted using a Cameron-Plint apparatus in lubricated conditions. The ring counterfaces used were Cr-plated and gas-nitrided compression rings. Our data also indicated that some PVD coatings with thicknesses in the same order of magnitude as the surface roughness of the liners did show some improvement in liner wear resistance. The suitability of thin coatings for liner applications needs additional study.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Degradation Rates of Lubricating Oil in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The specific goal of this project was to determine if there is a difference in the lube oil degradation rates in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with an EGR system, as compared to the same configuration of the engine, but minus the EGR system. A secondary goal was to develop FTIR analysis of used lube oil as a sensitive technique for rapid evaluation of the degradation properties of lubricants. The test engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to meet the 2004 emissions standards. The most significant changes in the lubricant occurred during the first 50-100 hours of operation. The results clearly demonstrated that the use of EGR has a significant impact on the degradation of the engine lubricant.
Technical Paper

Developing a Test Procedure for Compression Brake Noise

In this paper, a procedure for the measurement of noise produced by compression brakes on heavy duty trucks is proposed and evaluated. The test procedure is an adaptation of the ISO exterior vehicle noise regulation, ISO 362, to measure compression brake noise. The test consists of two parts, a driveby test and a stationary brake test, which are both developed to accentuate compression brake noise. The proposed test is demonstrated to provide results that are indicative of on-road compression brake noise. The sensitivity of the test results to variations in several test parameters is also examined.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Modified Elevated Temperature HFRR Test Data With Scuffing BOCLE Results

Evolving diesel engine design trends are expected to include fuel systems operating at significantly higher pressures and temperatures than in the past. Accordingly, meaningful laboratory tests are needed to help guide this development. Two candidate test methods were evaluated in this exploratory study. Scuffing Load Ball-on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE) and Modified High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test results covering a range of operating temperatures were compared with fuel property data. Correlations of the Modified HFRR test data with BOCLE results were also made.