Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 4 of 4
Technical Paper

Lean Breakthrough Phenomena Analysis for TWC OBD on a Natural Gas Engine using a Dual-Site Dynamic Oxygen Storage Capacity Model

Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) is one of the most critical characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and is closely related to the catalyst aging and performance. In this study, a dynamic OSC model involving two oxygen storage sites with distinct kinetics was developed. The dual-site OSC model was validated on a bench reactor and a natural gas engine. The model was capable of predicting temperature dependence on OSC with H2, CO and CH4 as reductants. Also, the effects of oxygen concentration and space velocity on the amount of OSC were captured by the model. The validated OSC model was applied to simulate lean breakthrough phenomena with varied space velocities and oxygen concentrations. It is found that OSC during lean breakthrough is not a constant for a particular TWC catalyst and is dependent on space velocity and oxygen concentration. Specifically, breakthrough time exhibits a non-linear, inverse correlation to oxygen flux.
Journal Article

Impact of Rh Oxidation State on NOx Reduction Performance of Multi-Component Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Catalyst

Typical Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalyst composition includes precious metal components (Pt, Pd, and/or Rh), responsible for NO oxidation during lean operation and NOx reduction during rich operation. It was found that redox history of commercial LNT catalyst plays a significant role on deciding its NOx conversion under Lean/Rich cyclic condition. Further test had shown that fully formulated LNT catalyst being pre-reduced had shown much better NO reduction activity during the temperature-programmed reduction (TPRx) of NO than the same LNT catalyst being oxidized. The following study with Rh-only and Pt-only catalyst had demonstrated that Rh plays a key role on the large variation of the NO reduction function due to oxidation state change over LNT catalyst.
Technical Paper

Impact of Different Forms of Sulfur Poisoning on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance

Despite drastic reduction of sulfur content in diesel fuel in the recent years, especially with the introduction of Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), sulfur poisoning remains one of the most significant factors impacting performance of various catalysts in diesel aftertreatment systems. This is because even with ULSD, cumulative exposure of a catalyst over its lifetime in a heavy-duty diesel system may amount to kilograms of sulfur. In this study, we have found that the impact of sulfur poisoning on the performance of various diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) strongly depends on the catalyst's operation history. For example, exposing a DOC to limited amounts of freshly deposited sulfur in bench reactor testing was shown to have a substantial detrimental effect. On the other hand, several samples which returned from vehicle or test-cell aging with high sulfur loading, have shown no signs of poisoning.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Field-Aged Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) on Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

Three-way catalysts have been used in a variety of stoichiometric natural gas engines for emission control. During real-world operation, these catalysts have experienced a large number of temporary and permanent deactivations including thermal aging and chemical contamination. Thermal aging is typically induced either by high engine-out exhaust temperatures or the reaction exotherm generated on the catalysts. Chemical contamination originates from various inorganic species such as Phosphorous (P) and Sulfur (S) that contain in engine fluids, which can poison and/or mask the catalyst active components. Such deactivations are quite difficult to simulate under laboratory conditions, due to the fact that multiple deactivation modes may occur at the same time in the real-world operations. In this work, a set of field-aged TWCs has been analyzed through detailed laboratory research in order to identify and quantify the real-world aging mechanisms.