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Journal Article

Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

2016-09-27
2016-01-8055
Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

2015-09-29
2015-01-2781
This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.
Technical Paper

Analysis Lead Drivability Assessment

2015-09-29
2015-01-2804
Drivability and powertrain refinement continue to gain importance in the assessment of overall vehicle quality. This notion has transcended its light duty origins and is beginning to gain considerable traction in the medium and heavy duty markets. However, with drivability assessment and refinement also comes the high costs associated with vehicle testing, including items such as test facilities, prototype component evaluation, fuel and human resources. Taking all of this into account, any and all measures must be used to reduce the cost of drivability evaluation and powertrain refinement. This paper describes an analysis based co-simulation methodology, where sophisticated powertrain simulation and objective drivability evaluation tools can be used to predict vehicle drivability. A fast running GT power engine model combined with simplified controls representation in Matlab/Simulink was used to predict engine transients and responses.
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