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Journal Article

Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

Fuel costs are significant portion of operational costs of freight owners in China. Reduction is fuel consumption for a given trip is key to increase maximize freight efficiency and increase the bottom-line of freight. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of cab over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by Cummins 12 Liter engine are studied and applied systematically. In addition to finding improvements at engine level, majority of fuel efficiency improvements are also identified at vehicle level involving vehicle design (more aerodynamic), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires) and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trims). These powertrain features include Cummins adaptive torque modulation and transmission neutral coasting. 3D CFD (ANSYS Fluent) is used to carry out aerodynamic study of truck and Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) is used to study powertrain integration features.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application: CFD/FEA Coupled Approach

This paper describes the methodology used to select application based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, noise and structural strength. The process uses 1D one-way CFD-FEA coupling approach in highly non-uniform actual flow field inside application. As part of different fan evaluation, full rail coach Underhood simulations were carried out using steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. For each fan option fan power, air flow rate and surface acoustic power is evaluated. Pressure profiles on fan blades are studied to assess effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power is calculated using Broadband noise source model in Fluent. Finite Element Analysis simulation is done in Ansys. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades are imported from 3D CFD are used in finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. Analyses are carried out blade linear and non-linear properties.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Integrated Drivetrain NVH Phenomena

This paper demonstrates the use of a system level model that includes torsional models of a Cummins diesel engine and an Allison transmission to study and improve system NVH behavior. The study is a case where the two suppliers of key powertrain components, Cummins Inc. and Allison Transmission Inc., have collaborated to solve an observed NVH problem for a vehicle customer. A common commercial tool, Siemens' AMESim, was used to develop the drivetrain torsional system model. This paper describes a method of modelling and calibration of baseline engine and transmission models to identify the source of vibration. Natural frequencies, modal shapes, and forced response were calculated for each vehicle drive gear ratio to study the torsional vibration. Several parametric studies such as damping, inertia, and stiffness were carried out to understand their impact on torsional vibration of the system.