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Journal Article

Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

2016-09-27
2016-01-8055
Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Onboard Coolant Filtration for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2005-05-10
2005-01-2014
Coolant filters have been used for nearly 50 years by heavy duty engine manufacturers but little has been published in the technical literature documenting their performance. In heavy duty cooling systems an extender is periodically added to the system to prevent the coolant from becoming corrosive and replenish additives that stop the build-up of deposits which reduce heat transfer. Not only is the coolant filter the most convenient and reliable method to deliver the extender to the cooling system, it also removes debris from the coolant which can cause deposits and wear, aggravate corrosion, and even plug heat exchangers. Additionally, the used coolant filter serves as a diagnostic trouble shooting tool. This paper concentrates on the value or importance of filtering debris from the coolant of heavy duty diesel engine cooling systems. Published literature is reviewed and recent data from lab testing is reported.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Glycerin (Glycerol) as a Heavy Duty Engine Antifreeze/Coolant Base

2007-10-29
2007-01-4000
In the early years of antifreeze/coolants (1920s & 30s) glycerin saw some usage, but because of higher cost and weaker freeze point depression, it was not competitive with ethylene glycol. Glycerin is a by-product of the manufacture of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) made by reacting natural vegetable or animal fats with methanol. Biodiesel fuel is becoming increasingly important and is expected to gain a large market share in the next several years. Regular diesel fuels blended with 2%, 5%, and 20% biodiesel are now commercially available. The large amount of glycerin generated from high volume usage of biodiesel fuel has resulted in this chemical becoming cost competitive with the glycols currently used in engine coolants. For this reason, and lower toxicity comparable to that of propylene glycol, glycerin deserves to be reconsidered as a base for antifreeze/coolant.
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