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Journal Article

Why Cu- and Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Behave Differently At Low Temperatures

2010-04-12
2010-01-1182
Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts emerged in recent years as the primary candidates for meeting the increasingly stringent lean exhaust emission regulations, due to their outstanding activity and durability characteristics. It is commonly known that Cu-zeolite catalysts possess superior activity to Fe-zeolites, in particular at low temperatures and sub-optimal NO₂/NOx ratios. In this work, we elucidate some underlying mechanistic differences between these two classes of catalysts, first based on their NO oxidation abilities, and then based on the relative properties of the two types of exchanged metal sites. Finally, by using the ammonia coverage-dependent NOx performance, we illustrate that state-of-the-art Fe-zeolites can perform better under certain transient conditions than in steady-state.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Journal Article

The Impact of Ammonium Nitrate Species on Low Temperature NOx Conversion Over Cu/CHA SCR Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0953
Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
Technical Paper

Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0341
Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200 °C range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however, poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project, we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150 °C. This project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015 and completed in 2017.
Technical Paper

Sulfur Management of NOx Adsorber Technology for Diesel Light-duty Vehicle and Truck Applications

2003-10-27
2003-01-3245
Sulfur poisoning from engine fuel and lube is one of the most recognizable degradation mechanisms of a NOx adsorber catalyst system for diesel emission reduction. Even with the availability of 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber will be deactivated without an effective sulfur management. Two general pathways are currently being explored for sulfur management: (1) the use of a disposable SOx trap that can be replaced or rejuvenated offline periodically, and (2) the use of diesel fuel injection in the exhaust and high temperature de-sulfation approach to remove the sulfur poisons to recover the NOx trapping efficiency. The major concern of the de-sulfation process is the many prolonged high temperature rich cycles that catalyst will encounter during its useful life. It is shown that NOx adsorber catalyst suffers some loss of its trapping capacity upon high temperature lean-rich exposure.
Journal Article

Spatially-Resolved Thermal Degradation Induced Temperature Pattern Changes along a Commercial Lean NOX Trap Catalyst

2010-04-12
2010-01-1214
The low-temperature performance characteristics of a commercial lean NOX trap catalyst were evaluated using infra-red thermography (IRT) before and after a high-temperature aging step. Reaction tests included propylene oxidation, oxygen storage capacity measurements, and simulated cycling conditions for NOX reduction, using H₂ as the reductant during the regeneration step of the cycle. Testing with and without NO in the lean phase showed thermal differences between the reductant used in reducing the stored oxygen and that for nitrate decomposition and reduction. IRT clearly demonstrated where NOX trapping and regeneration were occurring spatially as a function of regeneration conditions, with variables including hydrogen content of the regeneration phase and lean- and rich-phase cycle times.
Journal Article

Smart Sensing and Decomposition of NOx and NH3 Components from Production NOx Sensor Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1157
Production NO sensors have a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia which limits their use for closed-loop SCR control and diagnostics since increases in sensor output can be caused by either gas component. Recently, Ammonia/NO Ratio (ANR) perturbation methods have been proposed for determining the dominant component in the post-SCR exhaust as part of the overall SCR control strategy, but these methods or the issue of sensor cross-sensitivity have not been critically evaluated or studied in their own right. In this paper the dynamic sensor direct- and cross-sensitivities are estimated from experimental FTIR data (after compensating for the dynamics of the gas sampling system) and compared to nominal values provided by the manufacturer. The ANR perturbation method and the use of different input excitations are then discussed within an analytical framework, and applied to experimental data from a large diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Selective Catalytic Reduction On-Board Diagnostics: Past and Future Challenges

2005-11-01
2005-01-3603
Heavy-duty diesel on-board diagnostics (OBD) regulations are being phased in around the world with varying degrees of similarity. This is occurring at a time when heavy-duty diesel emission regulations are driving complex and elaborate emission control strategies. Unique circumstances led the European heavy-duty diesel market to adopt selective catalytic reduction (SCR) as the primary solution for meeting strict Euro 4 emission levels. This paper is a review of the challenges of diagnosing an SCR system based on the Euro 4 OBD regulation and considers the future challenges of SCR diagnostics that lie ahead in the North American market.
Technical Paper

Round Robin Noise Measurement System Analysis Using Light Duty Diesel Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2299
NVH development of light duty diesel engines require significant collaboration with the OEM as compared to medium duty and heavy duty diesel engines. Typically, competitive benchmark studies and customer expectations define the NVH targets at the vehicle level and are subsequently cascaded down to the powertrain level. For engine manufacturing companies like Cummins Inc., it is imperative to work closely with OEM to deliver on the NVH expectations. In certain situations, engine level NVH targets needs to be demonstrated in the OEM or 3rd party acoustic test facility for customer satisfaction or commercial purposes. Engine noise tests across different noise test facilities may introduce some variation due to differences in the acoustic test facilities, test hardware, instrumentation differences, etc. In addition, the engine itself is a major source of variation.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

2006-10-16
2006-01-3257
In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4108
A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Biodiesel Content in Fuels and Lubricants by FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy

2006-10-16
2006-01-3301
The use of biodiesel requires the development of proper quantification procedures for biodiesel content in blends and in lubricants (fuel dilution in oil). Although the ester carbonyl stretch at 1746 wavenumbers (cm-1) is the most prominent band in the IR spectrum of biodiesel, it is difficult to use for quantification purposes due to a severe fluctuation of absorption strength from sample to sample, even at the same biodiesel content. We have demonstrated that the ester carbonyl fluctuation is not caused by variation in the ester alkyl chain length; but is most likely caused by the degree of hydrogen bonding of the ester functional group with water in the sample. Water molecules can form complexes with the ester compound affecting the strength of the ester carbonyl band. The impact of water on quantification of the biodiesel content of blends was significant, even for B100 samples that met the proposed ASTM D6751 water limit of 500 ppm by D6304 (Karl Fischer Methdod).
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0973
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2333
Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

New Insights into the Unique Operation of Small Pore Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst: Overlapping NH3 Desorption and Oxidation Characteristics for Minimizing Undesired Products

2014-04-01
2014-01-1542
An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.
Journal Article

New Insights into Reaction Mechanism of Selective Catalytic Ammonia Oxidation Technology for Diesel Aftertreatment Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1314
Mitigation of ammonia slip from SCR system is critical to meeting the evolving NH₃ emission standards, while achieving maximum NOx conversion efficiency. Ammonia slip catalysts (ASC) are expected to balance high activity, required to oxidize ammonia across a broad range of operating conditions, with high selectivity of converting NH₃ to N₂, thus avoiding such undesirable byproducts as NOx or N₂O. In this work, new insights into the behavior of an advanced ammonia slip catalyst have been developed by using accelerated progressive catalyst aging as a tool for catalyst property interrogation. The overall behavior was deconstructed to several underlying functions, and referenced to an active but non-selective NH₃ oxidation function of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and to the highly selective but minimally active NH₃ oxidation function of an SCR catalyst.
Journal Article

N2O Formation and Mitigation in Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-1085
The high global warming potential of nitrous oxide (N₂O) led to its recent inclusion in the list of regulated pollutants under the emerging greenhouse gas regulations. While N₂O can be present in small quantities among the combustion products, it can also be generated as a minor byproduct in various types of aftertreatment systems. In this work, a systematic review of sources of N₂O is presented, along with the potential mechanisms of formation in a typical selective-catalytic-reduction-based diesel exhaust aftertreatment system. It is demonstrated that diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) can all potentially contribute to N₂O formation, depending on the catalyst material and exhaust gas conditions, as well as aftertreatment operation strategies. Furthermore, catalysts used in SCR aftertreatment system are also shown to decompose and/or reduce N₂O to N₂ under select conditions.
Technical Paper

Model-based Closed-loop Control of Urea SCR Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0287
Based on our error budget analysis, the urea SCR aftertreatment system is uncontrollable under EPA 2007-emission level without an effective closed-loop control strategy. The objective of the closed-loop control is to improve transient response as well as reduce the steady state control error. But the inherent large dead time in the urea SCR aftertreatment system makes the closed-loop control a challenge. In this paper, an innovative closed-loop control architecture is introduced, which combines model-based feedforward control with variable gain-scheduling feedback control. Transient response is improved with the inverse-dynamic feedforward control and the variable-gain closed-loop control. The steady-state response is improved with the closed-loop control. Based on this new strategy, a controller is designed and validated under the simulation and test cell environment. Comparison with the baseline open-loop controller is also conducted. Finally, some conclusions are presented.
Journal Article

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

2019-01-15
2019-01-0026
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device.
Journal Article

Meeting the US Heavy-Duty EPA 2010 Standards and Providing Increased Value for the Customer

2010-10-05
2010-01-1934
The paper will discuss the design and development of heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the US EPA 2010 on-highway standards - 0.2 g/HP-hr NOx and 0.01 g/HP-hr particulate matter (PM). In meeting these standards a combination of in-cylinder control and aftertreatment control for both NOx and particulate has been used. For NOx control, a combination of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is used. The SCR catalyst uses copper zeolite to achieve high levels of NOx conversion efficiency with minimal ammonia slip and unparalleled thermal durability. For particulate control, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) with upstream oxidation catalyst (DOC) is used. While the DPF may be actively regenerated when required, it operates predominantly with passive regeneration - enabled by the high NOx levels between the engine and the DPF, associated with high efficiency SCR systems and NO₂ production across the DOC.
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