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Technical Paper

Vehicle Duty Cycle Characteristics for Hybrid Potential Evaluation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2023
A range of cycle characteristics have been used to estimate the hybrid potential for vehicle duty cycles including characteristic acceleration, aerodynamic velocity, kinetic intensity, stop time, etc. These parameters give an indication of overall hybrid potential benefits, but do not contain information on the distribution of the available braking energy and the hybrid system power required to capture the braking energy. In this paper, the authors propose two new cycle characteristics to help evaluate overall hybrid potential of vehicle cycles: P50 and P90, which are non-dimensional power limits at 50% and 90% of available braking energy. These characteristics are independent of vehicle type, and help illustrate the potential hybridization benefit of different drive cycles. First, the distribution of available braking energy as a function of brake power for different vehicle cycles and vehicle classes is analyzed.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0282
Light duty vehicle emission standards are getting more stringent than ever before as stipulated by US EPA Tier 2 Standards and LEV III regulations proposed by CARB. The research in this paper sponsored by US DoE is focused towards developing a Tier 2 Bin 2 Emissions compliant light duty pickup truck with class leading fuel economy targets of 22.4 mpg “City” / 34.3 mpg “Highway”. Many advanced technologies comprising both engine and after-treatment systems are essential towards accomplishing this goal. The objective of this paper would be to discuss key engine technology enablers that will help in achieving the target emission levels and fuel economy. Several enabling technologies comprising air-handling, fuel system and base engine design requirements will be discussed in this paper highlighting both experimental and analytical evaluations.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

2013-09-24
2013-01-2421
With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Journal Article

Powertrain Cycle for Emission Certification

2012-09-24
2012-01-2059
In August of 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued new Green House Gas (GHG) emissions regulations for heavy duty vehicles. These regulations included new procedures for the evaluation of hybrid powertrains and vehicles. One of the hybrid options allows for the evaluation of an engine plus a hybrid transmission (a powertrain). For this type of testing, EPA has proposed simulating a vehicle following the hybrid vehicle test procedures, including the use of the vehicle cycles and the A to B comparison testing - as required for the full vehicle evaluation option. This paper proposes an alternative approach by defining a powertrain cycle. The powertrain cycle is based on the heavy duty engine emissions cycle - the transient FTP cycle. Simulation and test results are presented showing similar performance over the engine and vehicle cycles. This approach offers several advantages as compared to the procedure described in EPA's GHG rule.
Technical Paper

High-Performance Grid Computing for Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation: Architecture and Applications

2011-09-13
2011-01-2268
This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
Journal Article

Gear Train Mesh Efficiency Study: The Effects of an Anti-Backlash Gear

2014-04-01
2014-01-1769
In recent years, the focus on engine parasitic losses has increased as a result of the efforts to increase engine efficiency and reduce greenhouse gasses. The engine gear train, used to time the valve system and drive auxiliary loads, contributes to the overall engine parasitic losses. Anti-backlash gears are often used in engine gear trains to reduce gear rattle noise resulting from the torsional excitation of the gear train by the engine output torque. Friction between sliding surfaces at the gear tooth is a major source of power loss in gear trains. The effect of using anti-backlash gears on the gear friction power loss is not well known. As a part of the effort to reduce parasitic losses, the increase in friction power loss in the Cummins ISX 15 gear train due to the anti-backlash gear was quantitatively determined by modifying the methods given in ISO 14179-2 to fit the anti-backlash gear sub-assembly.
Book

Fundamentals of Engineering High-Performance Actuator Systems

2016-12-01
Actuators are the key to allowing machines to become more sophisticated and perform complex tasks that were previously done by humans, providing motion in a safe, controlled manner. As defined in this book, actuator design is a subset of mechanical design. It involves engineering the mechanical components necessary to make a product move as desired. Fundamentals of Engineering High-Performance Actuator Systems, by Ken Hummel, was written as a text to supplement actuator design courses, and a reference to engineers involved in the design of high-performance actuator systems. It highlights the design approach and features what should be considered when moving a payload at precision levels and/or speeds that are not as important in low-performance applications.
Technical Paper

FEM Simulation Methodology for Accurately Capturing the Experimental Vibration Response of ECM Assembly on a Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0467
This paper presents an experimental setup and an equivalent FEM simulation methodology to accurately predict the response of Engine Control Module (ECM) assembly mounted on a commercial vehicle subjected to road vibrations. Comprehensive vibration study is carried out. It involved Modal characteristics determination followed by random vibration characterization of the ECM assembly. A hammer impact experiment is first performed in lab to estimate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of ECM assembly. Mounting conditions in test specimen are kept similar to the actual mounting settings on vehicle. Natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted from free vibration experiment are compared with finite element (FE) based modal analysis. The importance of capturing the assembly stiffness more accurately by incorporating pre-stress effects like bolt-pretension and gravity, is emphasized.
Journal Article

Emissions Certification Vehicle Cycles Based on Heavy Duty Engine Test Cycles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0878
This paper describes the development vehicle cycles based on heavy duty engine test cycles for emissions certification. In the commercial vehicle and industrial equipment markets, emissions are evaluated using engine test cycles. For the on-highway market in the United States, these cycles include the transient heavy duty engine FTP test, and the steady state heavy duty engine SET test. Evaluation of engine only emissions is a practical approach given the diversity of applications, small volumes, and lack of vertical integration in the commercial vehicle market. However certain vehicle and powertrain characteristics can contribute significantly to fuel consumption and emissions. A number of approaches have been proposed to evaluate vehicle performance, and all of these vehicle evaluation methodologies require the selection of a vehicle cycle.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Technologies Enabling Powertrain Optimization to Meet U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0094
The world-wide commercial vehicle industry is faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. This work focuses on the new U.S. regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial vehicles and diesel engines and the most likely technologies to meet future anticipated standards while improving transportation freight efficiency. In the U.S., EPA and NHTSA have issued a joint proposed GHG rule that sets limits for CO2 and other GHGs from pick-up trucks and vans, vocational vehicles, semi-tractors, and heavy duty diesel engines. This paper discusses and compares different technologies to meet GHG regulations for diesel engines based on considerations of cost, complexity, real-world fidelity, and environmental benefit.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0880
Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 13L Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analysis-Led Design

2008-06-23
2008-01-1515
The paper covers the design and development of a new 13L heavy-duty diesel engine intended primarily for heavy truck applications in China. It provides information on the specific characteristics of the engine that make it particularly suitable for operation in China, and describes in detail some of the design techniques that were used. To meet these exacting requirements, extensive use was made of Analysis-Led Design, which allows components, sub-systems and the entire engine, aftertreatment and vehicle system to be modeled before designs are taken to prototype hardware. This enables a level of system and sub-system optimization not previously available. The paper describes the emissions strategy for China, and the physical design strategy for the new engine, and provides some engine performance robustness details. The engine architecture is discussed and the paper details the analysis of the major components - cylinder block, head, head seal, power cylinder and bearings.
Technical Paper

Developing Diesel Engines to Meet Ultra-low Emission Standards

2005-11-01
2005-01-3628
The modern diesel engine is used around the world to power applications as diverse as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks, electrical power generators, ships, locomotives, agricultural and industrial equipment. The success of the diesel engine results from its unique combination of fuel economy, durability, reliability and affordability - which drive the lowest total cost of ownership. The diesel engine has been developed to meet the most demanding on-highway emission standards, through the introduction of advanced technologies such as: electronic controls, high pressure fuel injection, and cooled exhaust gas recirculation. The standards to be introduced in the U.S. in 2007 will see the introduction of the Clean Diesel which will achieve near-zero NOx and particulate emissions, while retaining the customer values outlined above.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation Tool: Software Architecture and Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1997
This paper presents the business purpose, software architecture, technology integration, and applications of the Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. VMS is the value-based analysis tool used by the marketing, sales, and product engineering functions to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. VMS leverages the best of software architecture practices and proven technologies available today. It consists of a close integration of MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies. This Windows compatible application software uses stand-alone mathematical models compiled using Real Time Workshop. A built-in MySQL database contains product data for engines, driveline components, vehicles, and topographic routes. This paper outlines the database governance model that facilitates effective management, control, and distribution of engine and vehicle data across the enterprise.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design Validation of Medium Duty Truck Cooling System

2016-09-27
2016-01-8073
Various 1D simulation tools (KULI & LMS Amesim) and 3D simulation tools (ANSYS FLUENT®) can be used to size and evaluate truck cooling system design. In this paper, ANSYS FLUENT is used to analyze and validate the design of medium duty truck cooling systems. LMS Amesim is used to verify the quality of heat exchanger input data. This paper discusses design and simulation of parent and derivative trucks. As a first step, the parent truck was modeled in FLUENT (using standard' k - ε model) with detailed fan and underhood geometry. The fan is modeled using Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) method. Detailed geometry of heat exchangers is skipped. The heat exchangers are represented by regular shape cell zones with porous medium and dual cell heat exchanger models to account for their contributions to the entire system in both flow and temperature distribution. Good agreement is observed between numerical and experimental engine out temperatures at different engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Journal Article

Aftertreatment Architecture and Control Methodologies for Future Light Duty Diesel Emission Regulations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0911
Future light duty vehicles in the United States are required to be certified on the FTP-75 cycle to meet Tier 3 or LEV III emission standards [1, 2]. The cold phase of this cycle is heavily weighted and mitigation of emissions during this phase is crucial to meet the low tail pipe emission targets [3, 4]. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture and controls to improve Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Hydrocarbon (HC) or Non Methane Organic gases (NMOG) conversion efficiencies at low temperatures is proposed. This includes a passive NOx & HC adsorber, termed the diesel Cold Start Concept (dCSC™) catalyst, followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst on Filter (SCRF®) and an under-floor Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst (SCR). The system utilizes a gaseous ammonia delivery system capable of dosing at two locations to maximize NOx conversion and minimize parasitic ammonia oxidation and ammonia slip.
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