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Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Journal Article

Why Cu- and Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Behave Differently At Low Temperatures

2010-04-12
2010-01-1182
Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts emerged in recent years as the primary candidates for meeting the increasingly stringent lean exhaust emission regulations, due to their outstanding activity and durability characteristics. It is commonly known that Cu-zeolite catalysts possess superior activity to Fe-zeolites, in particular at low temperatures and sub-optimal NO₂/NOx ratios. In this work, we elucidate some underlying mechanistic differences between these two classes of catalysts, first based on their NO oxidation abilities, and then based on the relative properties of the two types of exchanged metal sites. Finally, by using the ammonia coverage-dependent NOx performance, we illustrate that state-of-the-art Fe-zeolites can perform better under certain transient conditions than in steady-state.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Duty Cycle Characteristics for Hybrid Potential Evaluation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2023
A range of cycle characteristics have been used to estimate the hybrid potential for vehicle duty cycles including characteristic acceleration, aerodynamic velocity, kinetic intensity, stop time, etc. These parameters give an indication of overall hybrid potential benefits, but do not contain information on the distribution of the available braking energy and the hybrid system power required to capture the braking energy. In this paper, the authors propose two new cycle characteristics to help evaluate overall hybrid potential of vehicle cycles: P50 and P90, which are non-dimensional power limits at 50% and 90% of available braking energy. These characteristics are independent of vehicle type, and help illustrate the potential hybridization benefit of different drive cycles. First, the distribution of available braking energy as a function of brake power for different vehicle cycles and vehicle classes is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2391
A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

Using Pilot Diesel Injection in a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2866
Previous research has shown that the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept holds promise for reducing pollutants (i.e. NOx, soot) while maintaining high thermal efficiency. However, it can be difficult to control the operation of the HCCI engines even under steady state running conditions. Power density may also be limited if high inlet air temperatures are used for achieving ignition. A methodology using a small pilot quantity of diesel fuel injected during the compression stroke to improve the power density and operation control is considered in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for an HCCI engine based on a CAT3401 engine. The computations show that the required initial temperature for ignition is reduced by about 70 K for the cases of the diesel pilot charge and a 25∼35% percent increase in power density was found for those cases without adversely impacting the NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0703
Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

Transmission Modulating Valve Simulation and Simulation Verification

1990-04-01
900917
This paper presents a response to the question: Simulation - mathematical manipulation or useful design tool? A mathematical model of a modulating valve in a transmission control system was developed to predict clutch pressure modulation characteristics. The transmission control system was previously reported in SAE Paper 850783 - “Electronic/Hydraulic Transmission Control System for Off-Highway Vehicles”. The comparison of simulation predictions with test data illustrates the effectiveness of simulation as a design tool. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER hardware and simulation software has resulted in increased interest and usage of simulation for dynamic analysis of hydraulic systems. Most commercially available software is relatively easy to learn to use. The application of such software and the modeling techniques involved require a longer learning curve.
Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1091
This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0282
Light duty vehicle emission standards are getting more stringent than ever before as stipulated by US EPA Tier 2 Standards and LEV III regulations proposed by CARB. The research in this paper sponsored by US DoE is focused towards developing a Tier 2 Bin 2 Emissions compliant light duty pickup truck with class leading fuel economy targets of 22.4 mpg “City” / 34.3 mpg “Highway”. Many advanced technologies comprising both engine and after-treatment systems are essential towards accomplishing this goal. The objective of this paper would be to discuss key engine technology enablers that will help in achieving the target emission levels and fuel economy. Several enabling technologies comprising air-handling, fuel system and base engine design requirements will be discussed in this paper highlighting both experimental and analytical evaluations.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1266
The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings For Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Applications

1999-04-28
1999-01-2255
Thermal efficiencies of 54% have been demonstrated by single cylinder engine testing of advanced diesel engine concepts developed under Department of Energy funding. In order for these concept engines to be commercially viable, cost effective and durable systems for insulating the piston, head, ports and exhaust manifolds will be required. The application and development of new materials such as thick thermal barrier coating systems will be key to insulating these components. Development of test methods to rapidly evaluate the durability of coating systems without expensive engine testing is a major objective of current work. In addition, a novel, low cost method for producing thermal barrier coated pistons without final machining of the coating has been developed.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

2015-04-14
2015-01-0801
Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of Transient Response Prediction of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine to Turbine Map Extrapolation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0019
Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.
Technical Paper

The Role of Carboxylate-Based Coolants in Cast Iron Corrosion Protection

2001-03-05
2001-01-1184
Nitrites have long been added to heavy-duty coolant to inhibit iron cylinder liner corrosion initiated by cavitation. However, in heavy-duty use, nitrites deplete from the coolant, which then must be refortified using supplemental coolant additives (SCA's). Recently, carboxylates have also been found to provide excellent cylinder liner protection in heavy-duty application. Unlike nitrites, carboxylate inhibitors deplete slowly and thus do not require continual refortification with SCA's. In the present paper laboratory aging experiments shed light on the mechanism of cylinder liner protection by these inhibitors. The performance of carboxylates, nitrites and mixtures of the two inhibitors are compared. Results correlate well with previously published fleet data. Specifically, rapid nitrite and slow carboxylate depletion are observed. More importantly, when nitrite and carboxylates are used in combination, nitrite depletion is repressed while carboxylates deplete at a very slow rate.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Statistical Design Method for Co-Creation HMI Applications in the Chinese Automotive Market

2017-03-28
2017-01-0650
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Connecting Rod Fretting and Fretting Initiated Fatigue Fracture

2004-10-25
2004-01-3015
The influence of big-end bore fretting on connecting rod fatigue fracture is investigated. A finite element model, including rod-bearing contact interaction, is developed to simulate a fatigue test rig where the connecting rod is subjected to an alternating uniaxial load. Comparison of the model results with a rod fracture from the fatigue rig shows good correlation between the fracture location and the peak ‘Ruiz’ criterion, rather than the peak tensile stress location, indicating the potential of fretting to initiate a fatigue fracture and the usefulness of the ‘Ruiz’ criterion as a measure of location and severity. The model is extended to simulate a full engine cycle using pressure loads from a bearing EHL analysis. A fretting map and a ‘Ruiz’ criterion map are developed for the full engine cycle, giving an indication of a safe ‘Ruiz’ level from an existing engine which has been in service for more than 5 years.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RoHS on Electric Vehicles in the Chinese Automotive Market

2016-09-27
2016-01-8124
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
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