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Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamometer for Hybrid Truck Development

A special vehicle dynamometer has been developed that allows engineers to evaluate driveline components and control algorithms for advanced, electrically-assisted drive systems on commercial vehicles. This dynamometer allows objective measurements of performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions, while the full vehicle is operated over a specified driving cycle. This system can be used to exercise the electric motor, engine, transmission and battery systems on Medium Duty Hybrid Trucks - in regeneration as well as power mode - all indoors and in a controlled, repeatable environment. This paper will provide descriptions of the operating goals, control features, and results of testing with this dynamometer. Once the various parameters have been optimized for fuel and emissions performance in this facility, the vehicle can be evaluated where it counts - on the road.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Duty Cycle Characteristics for Hybrid Potential Evaluation

A range of cycle characteristics have been used to estimate the hybrid potential for vehicle duty cycles including characteristic acceleration, aerodynamic velocity, kinetic intensity, stop time, etc. These parameters give an indication of overall hybrid potential benefits, but do not contain information on the distribution of the available braking energy and the hybrid system power required to capture the braking energy. In this paper, the authors propose two new cycle characteristics to help evaluate overall hybrid potential of vehicle cycles: P50 and P90, which are non-dimensional power limits at 50% and 90% of available braking energy. These characteristics are independent of vehicle type, and help illustrate the potential hybridization benefit of different drive cycles. First, the distribution of available braking energy as a function of brake power for different vehicle cycles and vehicle classes is analyzed.
Journal Article

Transient On-Road Emission Reduction of an LNT + SCR Aftertreatment System

An LNT + SCR diesel aftertreatment system was developed in order to meet the 2010 US HD EPA on-road, and tier 4 US HD EPA off-road emission standards. This system consists of a fuel reformer (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series to reduce tailpipe nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). This system utilizes a REF to produce hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and heat to regenerate the LNT, desulfate the LNT, and actively regenerate the DPF. The NOx stored on the LNT is reduced by the H2 and CO generated in the REF converting it to nitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3). NH3, which is normally an undesired byproduct of LNT regeneration, is stored in the downstream SCR which is utilized to further reduce NOx that passes through the LNT. Engine exhaust PM is filtered and trapped by the DPF reducing the tailpipe PM emissions.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines

Light duty vehicle emission standards are getting more stringent than ever before as stipulated by US EPA Tier 2 Standards and LEV III regulations proposed by CARB. The research in this paper sponsored by US DoE is focused towards developing a Tier 2 Bin 2 Emissions compliant light duty pickup truck with class leading fuel economy targets of 22.4 mpg “City” / 34.3 mpg “Highway”. Many advanced technologies comprising both engine and after-treatment systems are essential towards accomplishing this goal. The objective of this paper would be to discuss key engine technology enablers that will help in achieving the target emission levels and fuel economy. Several enabling technologies comprising air-handling, fuel system and base engine design requirements will be discussed in this paper highlighting both experimental and analytical evaluations.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Sulfur Management of NOx Adsorber Technology for Diesel Light-duty Vehicle and Truck Applications

Sulfur poisoning from engine fuel and lube is one of the most recognizable degradation mechanisms of a NOx adsorber catalyst system for diesel emission reduction. Even with the availability of 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber will be deactivated without an effective sulfur management. Two general pathways are currently being explored for sulfur management: (1) the use of a disposable SOx trap that can be replaced or rejuvenated offline periodically, and (2) the use of diesel fuel injection in the exhaust and high temperature de-sulfation approach to remove the sulfur poisons to recover the NOx trapping efficiency. The major concern of the de-sulfation process is the many prolonged high temperature rich cycles that catalyst will encounter during its useful life. It is shown that NOx adsorber catalyst suffers some loss of its trapping capacity upon high temperature lean-rich exposure.
Journal Article

Spatially-Resolved Thermal Degradation Induced Temperature Pattern Changes along a Commercial Lean NOX Trap Catalyst

The low-temperature performance characteristics of a commercial lean NOX trap catalyst were evaluated using infra-red thermography (IRT) before and after a high-temperature aging step. Reaction tests included propylene oxidation, oxygen storage capacity measurements, and simulated cycling conditions for NOX reduction, using H₂ as the reductant during the regeneration step of the cycle. Testing with and without NO in the lean phase showed thermal differences between the reductant used in reducing the stored oxygen and that for nitrate decomposition and reduction. IRT clearly demonstrated where NOX trapping and regeneration were occurring spatially as a function of regeneration conditions, with variables including hydrogen content of the regeneration phase and lean- and rich-phase cycle times.
Technical Paper

Simulated Performance of a Diesel Aftertreatment System for U.S. 2010 Application

An aftertreatment system for medium and heavy-duty diesel engines has been modeled for U.S. 2010 application. The aftertreatment system is comprised of a lean NOx trap (LNT) and an ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Descriptions of the fully transient, one-dimensional LNT and SCR models are presented. The models simulate flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions in the LNT and SCR catalysts. The models can be used to predict catalyst performance over a range of operating conditions and driving cycles. Simulated results of NOx conversion efficiency, species concentrations, and gas temperature were compared to experimental data for a 13-mode test. The model results showed the LNT-SCR model predicts system performance with reasonable accuracy in comparison to experimental data. Therefore, two model applications were investigated. First, LNT and SCR volumes were varied to examine the effect on NOx conversion efficiency and NH3 production.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations

Plug flow reactors, simulating engine exhaust gas, are widely used in emissions control research to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms and engineering aspects that controls activity, selectivity, and durability of catalyst components. The choice of relevant hydrocarbon (HC) species is one of the most challenging factor in such laboratory studies, given the variety of compositions that can be encountered in different application scenarios. Furthermore, this challenge is amplified by the experimental difficulties related to introducing heavier and multi-component HCs and analyzing the reaction products.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Biodiesel Content in Fuels and Lubricants by FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy

The use of biodiesel requires the development of proper quantification procedures for biodiesel content in blends and in lubricants (fuel dilution in oil). Although the ester carbonyl stretch at 1746 wavenumbers (cm-1) is the most prominent band in the IR spectrum of biodiesel, it is difficult to use for quantification purposes due to a severe fluctuation of absorption strength from sample to sample, even at the same biodiesel content. We have demonstrated that the ester carbonyl fluctuation is not caused by variation in the ester alkyl chain length; but is most likely caused by the degree of hydrogen bonding of the ester functional group with water in the sample. Water molecules can form complexes with the ester compound affecting the strength of the ester carbonyl band. The impact of water on quantification of the biodiesel content of blends was significant, even for B100 samples that met the proposed ASTM D6751 water limit of 500 ppm by D6304 (Karl Fischer Methdod).
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Journal Article

Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Following 500 LNT Desulfation Events

An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is characterized following end-of-life catalyst aging to meet final Tier 4 off-highway emission requirements. This system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The fuel reformer is used to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia (NH3) is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses system durability as the catalysts were aged to 500 desulfation events using an off-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

PIV Measurements of In-Cylinder Flow in a Four-Stroke Utility Engine and Correlation with Steady Flow Results

Large-scale flows in internal combustion engines directly affect combustion duration and emissions production. These benefits are significant given increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy requirements. Recent efforts by engine manufacturers to improve in-cylinder flows have focused on the design of specially shaped intake ports. Utility engine manufacturers are limited to simple intake port geometries to reduce the complexity of casting and cost of manufacturing. These constraints create unique flow physics in the engine cylinder in comparison to automotive engines. An experimental study of intake-generated flows was conducted in a four-stroke spark-ignition utility engine. Steady flow and in-cylinder flow measurements were made using three simple intake port geometries at three port orientations. Steady flow measurements were performed to characterize the swirl and tumble-generating capability of the intake ports.
Technical Paper

On-board Measurements of City Buses with Hybrid Electric Powertrain, Conventional Diesel and LPG Engines

On-board measurements of fuel consumption and vehicle exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2, and PM are being conducted for three types of commercially available city buses in Guangzhou, China. The selected vehicles for this test include a diesel bus with Eaton hybrid electric powertrain, a conventional diesel bus with automated mechanical transmission (AMT), and a LPG powered city bus with manual transmission (MT). All of the tested vehicles were instrumented with on-board measurements. Horiba OBS-2200 was used for measuring NOx, HC, and CO emissions; ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) was used for PM measurement. The vehicles were tested at Hainan National Proving Ground in southern China. Test data of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were analyzed. The city bus with Eaton hybrid electric powertrain demonstrated more than 27% fuel consumption reduction over the conventional diesel powered bus, and over 68% over the LPG bus.