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Journal Article

Why Cu- and Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Behave Differently At Low Temperatures

2010-04-12
2010-01-1182
Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts emerged in recent years as the primary candidates for meeting the increasingly stringent lean exhaust emission regulations, due to their outstanding activity and durability characteristics. It is commonly known that Cu-zeolite catalysts possess superior activity to Fe-zeolites, in particular at low temperatures and sub-optimal NO₂/NOx ratios. In this work, we elucidate some underlying mechanistic differences between these two classes of catalysts, first based on their NO oxidation abilities, and then based on the relative properties of the two types of exchanged metal sites. Finally, by using the ammonia coverage-dependent NOx performance, we illustrate that state-of-the-art Fe-zeolites can perform better under certain transient conditions than in steady-state.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel Injection Engine During Engine Warm-up

1995-10-01
952481
The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Duty Cycle Characteristics for Hybrid Potential Evaluation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2023
A range of cycle characteristics have been used to estimate the hybrid potential for vehicle duty cycles including characteristic acceleration, aerodynamic velocity, kinetic intensity, stop time, etc. These parameters give an indication of overall hybrid potential benefits, but do not contain information on the distribution of the available braking energy and the hybrid system power required to capture the braking energy. In this paper, the authors propose two new cycle characteristics to help evaluate overall hybrid potential of vehicle cycles: P50 and P90, which are non-dimensional power limits at 50% and 90% of available braking energy. These characteristics are independent of vehicle type, and help illustrate the potential hybridization benefit of different drive cycles. First, the distribution of available braking energy as a function of brake power for different vehicle cycles and vehicle classes is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Using Mass Spectrometry to Detect Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

2011-04-12
2011-01-1159
Ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from a direct ignition spark ignition were measured using mass spectrometry. Previous methods focused on eliminating or minimizing interference from exhaust species with identical atomic mass and fragment ions created in ionization process. This paper describes a new technique which exploits the fragment ions from ethanol and acetaldehyde. A survey of mass spectra of all major species of exhaust gas was conducted. It was found that ethanol contributes most ions in mass number 31 and that no other gas species produces ions at this mass number. Acetaldehyde detection suffers more interference. Nevertheless, it was estimated that detection at mass number 43 is possible with 10% error from 2-methylbutane. This new technique was validated in an engine experiment. By running the engine with pure gasoline and E85, the validity of the technique can be checked.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flowrate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine

1972-02-01
720112
Experimental measurements of the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature, mass flowrate, and hydrocarbon concentration have been made in the exhaust of a single cylinder research engine. The temperature measurements were accomplished using an infrared optical technique and observing the radiation of the exhaust gas at the 4.4 μm band of CO2. Instantaneous exhaust gas mass flowrates were monitored by placing a restriction in the exhaust manifold and measuring the instantaneous pressures across the restriction. Time-resolved hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using a fast-acting sampling valve with an open time of 2 ms. From these measurements, the hydrocarbon mass flowrate is calculated as a function of crank angle.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Throttle Movement Rate Effects on Transient Fuel Compensation in a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1937
Throttle ramp rate effects on the in-cylinder fuel/air (F/A) excursion was studied in a production engine. The fuel delivered to the cylinder per cycle was measured in-cylinder by a Fast Response Flame Ionization detector. Intake pressure was ramped from 0.4 to 0.9 bar. Under slow ramp rates (∼1 s ramp time), the Engine Electronic Control (EEC) unit provided the correct compensation for delivering a stoichiometric mixture to the cylinder throughout the transient. At fast ramp rates (a fraction of a second ramps), a lean spike followed by a rich one were observed. Based on the actual fuel injected in each cycle during the transient, a x-τ model using a single set of x and τ values reproduced the cycle-to-cycle in-cylinder F/A response for all the throttle ramp rates.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss at Component Interfaces in Stirling Cycles

1992-08-03
929468
The paper considers the thermodynamic irreversibility in Stirling cycle machines at the interface between components with different thermodynamic characteristics. The approach of the paper is to consider the simplest possible cases and to focus on the factors that influence the thermodynamic losses. For example, an ideal adiabatic cylinder facing an ideal isothermal heat exchanger is considered. If there is no mixing in the cylinder (gas remains one dimensionally stratified), there will be no loss (irreversibility) if the gas motion is in phase with the gas pressure changes. If there is a phase shift, as required to have a network for the cylinder, there will be a loss (entropy generation) because the gas will not match the heat exchanger temperature. There will also be a loss if the gas in the cylinder is mixed rather than stratified. Similar simple interface conditions can be considered between components and interconnecting open volumes and between heat exchangers and regenerators.
Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Ash Accumulation and Mobility in Ceramic Exhaust Particulate Filters and Potential for Improved Ash Management

2014-04-01
2014-01-1517
Ash accumulation in the channels of ceramic, honeycomb-type particulate filters is controlled by several key parameters, which are the focus of this study. Ultimately, it is the formation of ash deposits, their transport, and the manner in which the ash accumulates in the particulate filter, which determines the useful service life of the filter and its resulting impact on engine performance. Although significant variations in ash deposit properties and their spatial distribution within the filter channels have been reported, depending on the filter's application, understanding the key parameters and mechanisms, such as the effects of exhaust flow and temperature conditions, as well as the processes occurring during filter regeneration events (whether passive or active) are critical in developing improved filter ash management strategies.
Technical Paper

The Study of Friction between Piston Ring and Different Cylinder Liners using Floating Liner Engine - Part 1

2012-04-16
2012-01-1334
The objective of this work was to develop an experimental system to support development and validation of a model for the lubrication of two-piece Twin-Land-Oil-Control-Rings (hereafter mentioned as TLOCR). To do so, a floating liner engine was modified by opening the head and crankcase. Additionally, only TLOCR was installed together with a piston that has 100 micron cold clearance to minimize the contribution of the skirt to total friction. Friction traces, FMEP trend, and repeatability have been examined to guarantee the reliability of the experiment results. Then, engine speed, liner temperature, ring tension, and land widths were changed in a wide range to ensure all three lubrication regimes were covered in the experiments.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Inside DPF Inlet Channels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1584
Ash inside a honeycomb-configured diesel particulate filter (DPF) inlet channel accumulates both as a cake layer along the channel walls and as a “plug” towards the back of the channel. Experimental studies of DPF ash distribution have shown both an axial variation of deposits along channels and accumulation towards the end plugs. This study evaluates the sensitivity of DPF pressure drop on ash axial distribution and the potential to reduce flow restrictions by controlling and optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF channels. A computational model has been used in conjunction with experimental data to illustrate the sensitivity of ash spatial distribution on DPF performance. The classical constant-thickness DPF one-dimensional models have substantially been updated to include layer thickness axial variations. Material properties, such as ash characteristics, are provided by recent experiments at the authors' laboratory.
Technical Paper

The Mars Gravity Biosatellite: Innovations in Murine Motion Analysis and Life Support

2005-07-11
2005-01-2788
The MIT-based Mars Gravity Biosatellite payload engineering team has been engaged in designing and prototyping sensor and control systems for deployment within the rodent housing zone of the satellite, including novel video processing and atmospheric management tools. The video module will be a fully autonomous real-time analysis system that takes raw video footage of the specimen mice as input and distills those parameters which are of primary physiological importance from a scientific research perspective. Such signals include activity level, average velocity and rearing behavior, all of which will serve as indicators of animal health and vestibular function within the artificial gravity environment. Unlike raw video, these parameters require minimal storage space and can be readily transmitted to earth over a radio link of very low bandwidth.
Journal Article

The Impact of Ammonium Nitrate Species on Low Temperature NOx Conversion Over Cu/CHA SCR Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0953
Cu/CHA catalysts have been widely used in the industry, due to their desirable performance characteristics including the unmatched hydrothermal stability. While broadly recognized for their outstanding activity at or above 200°C, these catalysts may not show desired levels of NOx conversion at lower temperatures. To achieve high NOx conversions it is desirable to have NO2/NOx close to 0.5 for fast SCR. However even under such optimal gas feed conditions, sustained use of Cu/CHA below 200°C leads to ammonium nitrate formation and accumulation, resulting in the inhibition of NOx conversion. In this contribution, the formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 on a commercial Cu/CHA catalyst have been investigated systematically. First, the impact of NH4NO3 self-inhibition on SCR activity as a function of temperature and NO2/NOx ratios was investigated through reactor testing.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Sulfated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulfur on Diesel Aftertreatment Systems - A Review

2007-07-23
2007-01-1922
This paper reviews the relevant literature on the effects of sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur on DPF, LNT, and SCR catalysts. Exhaust backpressure increase due to DPF ash accumulation, as well as the rate at which ash is consumed from the sump, were the most studied lubricant-derived DPF effects. Based on several studies, a doubling of backpressure can be estimated to occur within 270,000 to 490,000 km when using a 1.0% sulfated ash oil. Postmortem DPF analysis and exhaust gas measurements revealed that approximately 35% to 65% less ash was lost from the sump than was expected based on bulk oil consumption estimates. Despite significant effects from lubricant sulfur and phosphorus, loss of LNT NOX reduction efficiency is dominated by fuel sulfur effects. Phosphorus has been determined to have a mild poisoning effect on SCR catalysts. The extent of the effect that lubricant phosphorus and sulfur have on DOCs remains unclear, however, it appears to be minor.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Mid-Channel Ash Plug on DPF Pressure Drop

2016-04-05
2016-01-0966
It has been observed that a certain percentage of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) from the field form mid-channel ash plugs both in light duty and heavy duty applications. As revealed in a post mortem study, some field samples have ash plugs of 3-10 cm length in the middle of DPF inlet channels, which can potentially reduce the inlet channel volume by more than 50%. As a result, the mid-channel ash plug reduces the effective filtration area and decreases the effective channel open width in the middle of the channel. This explains why these filters are reported as having large increases in pressure drop. Moreover, the mid-channel ash deposits reduce the DPF service life and render the filter cleaning process ineffective. In the present study, an open source CFD tool is applied to study the 3D flow crossing two representative inlet and outlet DPF channels where the inlet channels have mid-channel ash plugs.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0350
The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the nitrogen in the intake air by argon or CO₂, thereby increasing or decreasing the laminar flame speed. The objective is to examine the "Late Robust Combustion" concept: whether there are opportunities for producing a high exhaust temperature using retarded combustion to facilitate catalyst warm-up, while at the same time, keeping an acceptable cycle-to-cycle torque variation as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV) of the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP). The operating condition of interest is at the fast idle period of a cold start with engine speed at 1400 RPM and NIMEP at 2.6 bar. A fast burn could be produced by appropriate charge motion. The combustion phasing is primarily a function of the spark timing.
Technical Paper

THE VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF FOUR-STROKE ENGINES

1952-01-01
520259
PARAMOUNT among the problems relating to the efficiency of the internal-combustion engine is that of breathing capacity, or air consumption. Considering volumetric efficiency to be the most valuable parameter in an analytical or experimental approach to this problem, the authors of this paper have devoted several years of study to this factor in relation to 4-stroke engines. The studies have resulted in extensive findings, some of which have already been published. This paper attempts to bring together in readable form the results of the work to date, including both published and unpublished data. The authors discuss in detail the effect of volumetric efficiency on operating variables, piston speed, inlet-valve flow capacity, cylinder design, and size. They introduce a gulp factor, the inlet-valve Mach index, and explain how this factor can be used to guide engineers.
Technical Paper

Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0341
Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200 °C range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however, poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project, we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150 °C. This project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015 and completed in 2017.
Technical Paper

Substitution of Steam for Nitrogen as a Working Fluid in Atmosphere Free Spark Ignition Engines - Theory and Test Results for Steam, Oxygen, and Fuel

1962-01-01
620235
This paper summarizes the results of both the preliminary studies and the initial cycle tests of a unique type of IC engine capable of operating in the absence of an atmosphere. This engine has been designed specifically for use in the general space program, and it is intended to satisfy requirements of high power to weight ratio, reliability, compactness, and short development time. The history of the en-engine's development is discussed together with problems encountered in the study. However, primary emphasis is on the recently conducted cycle tests.
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