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Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0433
A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

What FutureCar MPG Levels and Technology Will be Necessary?

2002-06-03
2002-01-1899
The potential peaking of world conventional oil production and the possible imperative to reduce carbon emissions will put great pressure on vehicle manufacturers to produce more efficient vehicles, on vehicle buyers to seek them out in the marketplace, and on energy suppliers to develop new fuels and delivery systems. Four cases for stabilizing or reducing light vehicle fuel use, oil use, and/or carbon emissions over the next 50 years are presented. Case 1 - Improve mpg so that the fuel use in 2020 is stabilized for the next 30 years. Case 2 - Improve mpg so that by 2030 the fuel use is reduced to the 2000 level and is reduced further in subsequent years. Case 3 - Case 1 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. Case 4 - Case 2 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. The mpg targets for new cars and light trucks require that significant advances be made in developing cost-effective and very efficient vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Impacts of Fuel Cell System Power Response Capability

2002-06-03
2002-01-1959
The impacts of fuel cell system power response capability on optimal hybrid and neat fuel cell vehicle configurations have been explored. Vehicle system optimization was performed with the goal of maximizing fuel economy over a drive cycle. Optimal hybrid vehicle design scenarios were derived for fuel cell systems with 10 to 90% power transient response times of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 seconds. Optimal neat fuel cell vehicles where generated for responses times of 0, 2, 5, and 7 seconds. DIRECT, a derivative-free optimization algorithm, was used in conjunction with ADVISOR, a vehicle systems analysis tool, to systematically change both powertrain component sizes and the vehicle energy management strategy parameters to provide optimal vehicle system configurations for the range of response capabilities.
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1755
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0282
Light duty vehicle emission standards are getting more stringent than ever before as stipulated by US EPA Tier 2 Standards and LEV III regulations proposed by CARB. The research in this paper sponsored by US DoE is focused towards developing a Tier 2 Bin 2 Emissions compliant light duty pickup truck with class leading fuel economy targets of 22.4 mpg “City” / 34.3 mpg “Highway”. Many advanced technologies comprising both engine and after-treatment systems are essential towards accomplishing this goal. The objective of this paper would be to discuss key engine technology enablers that will help in achieving the target emission levels and fuel economy. Several enabling technologies comprising air-handling, fuel system and base engine design requirements will be discussed in this paper highlighting both experimental and analytical evaluations.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Metal-free Solar Reflective Film on Vehicle Climate Control

2001-05-14
2001-01-1721
The air-conditioning system can significantly impact the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of automobiles. If the peak soak temperature of the passenger compartment can be reduced, the air-conditioner compressor can potentially be downsized while maintaining human thermal comfort. Solar reflective film is one way to reduce the peak soak temperature by reducing the solar heat gain into the passenger compartment. A 3M non-metallic solar reflective film (SRF) was tested in two minivans and two sport utility vehicles (SUV). The peak soak temperature was reduced resulting in a quicker cooldown. Using these data, a reduction in air-conditioner size was estimated and the fuel economy and tailpipe emissions were predicted.
Technical Paper

The Accuracy and Correction of Fuel Consumption from Controller Area Network Broadcast

2017-10-13
2017-01-7005
Fuel consumption (FC) has always been an important factor in vehicle cost. With the advent of electronically controlled engines, the controller area network (CAN) broadcasts information about engine and vehicle performance, including fuel use. However, the accuracy of the FC estimates is uncertain. In this study, the researchers first compared CAN-broadcasted FC against physically measured fuel use for three different types of trucks, which revealed the inaccuracies of CAN-broadcast fueling estimates. To match precise gravimetric fuel-scale measurements, polynomial models were developed to correct the CAN-broadcasted FC. Lastly, the robustness testing of the correction models was performed. The training cycles in this section included a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. The mean relative differences were reduced noticeably.
Technical Paper

Test Results and Modeling of the Honda Insight using ADVISOR

2001-08-20
2001-01-2537
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducted a series of chassis dynamometer and road tests on the 2000 model-year Honda Insight. This paper will focus on results from the testing, how the results have been applied to NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), and how test results compare to the model predictions and published data. The chassis dynamometer testing included the FTP-75 emissions certification test procedure, highway fuel economy test, US06 aggressive driving cycle conducted at 0°C, 20°C, and 40°C, and the SC03 test performed at 35°C with the air conditioning on and with the air conditioning off. Data collection included bag and continuously sampled emissions (for the chassis tests), engine and vehicle operating parameters, battery cell temperatures and voltages, motor and auxiliary currents, and cabin temperatures.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

2013-09-24
2013-01-2421
With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Journal Article

Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment

2015-04-14
2015-01-0342
It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.
Technical Paper

Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1969
Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social and environmental benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

2007-04-16
2007-01-1194
A new type of solar-reflective glass that improves reflection of the near-infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum has been developed. Also developed was a prototype solar-reflective paint that increases the NIR reflection of opaque vehicle surfaces while maintaining desired colors in the visible portion of the spectrum. Both of these technologies, as well as solar-powered parked car ventilation, were tested on a Cadillac STS as part of the Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program (I-MAC). Significant reductions in interior and vehicle skin temperatures were measured. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed an analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on the vehicle. A simplified cabin thermal/fluid model was run to predict the potential reduction in A/C system capacity. The potential reduction in fuel use was calculated using a vehicle simulation tool developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Technical Paper

Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2773
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study analyzed the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors included vehicle weight and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. Simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1687
The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S.
Technical Paper

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

2010-04-12
2010-01-0799
The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Fuel Economy Impact of “Cold-Start” for Reformed Gasoline Fuel Cell Vehicles

2003-06-23
2003-01-2253
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) appear to be a promising solution for the future of clean and efficient personal transportation. Issues of how to generate the hydrogen and then store it on-board to provide satisfactory driving range must still be resolved before they can compete with conventional vehicles. Alternatively, FCVs could obtain hydrogen from on-board reforming of gasoline or other fuels such as methanol or ethanol. On-board reformers convert fuel into a hydrogen-rich fuel stream through catalytic reactions in several stages. The high temperatures associated with fuel processing present an engineering challenge to warm up the reformer quickly and efficiently in a vehicle environment. Without a special warmup phase or vehicle hybridization, the reformer and fuel cell system must provide all power to move the vehicle, including ¼ power in 30 s, and ½ power in 3 min to satisfy the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle demands.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst/Diesel Particle Filter System for a Heavy-Duty Engine During a 2000-Hour Endurance Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-1760
In this study, a 15-L heavy-duty diesel engine and an emission control system consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts, NOx adsorber catalysts, and diesel particle filters were evaluated over the course of a 2000 hour aging study. The work is a follow-on to a previously documented development effort to establish system regeneration and sulfur management strategies. The study is one of five projects being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity. The primary objective of the study was to determine if the significant NOx and PM reduction efficiency (>90%) demonstrated in the development work could be maintained over time with a 15-ppm sulfur diesel fuel. The study showed that high NOx reduction efficiency can be restored after 2000 hours of operation and 23 desulfation cycles.
Journal Article

On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0892
On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle’s fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of “off-cycle credits” that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Modeling of an Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System in MATLAB/Simulink

2015-04-14
2015-01-1708
Electric vehicles (EVs) need highly optimized thermal management systems to improve range. Climate control can reduce vehicle efficiency and range by more than 50%. Due to the relative shortage of waste heat, heating the passenger cabin in EVs is difficult. Cabin cooling can take a high portion of the energy available in the battery. Compared to internal combustion engine-driven vehicles, different heating methods and more efficient cooling methods are needed, which can make EV thermal management systems more complex. More complex systems typically allow various alternative modes of operation that can be selected based on driving and ambient conditions. A good system simulation tool can greatly reduce the time and expense for developing these complex systems. A simulation model should also be able to efficiently co-simulate with vehicle simulation programs, and should be applicable for evaluating various control algorithms.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

2015-09-29
2015-01-2812
This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method.
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