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Journal Article

Thermodynamic Systems for Tier 2 Bin 2 Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0282
Light duty vehicle emission standards are getting more stringent than ever before as stipulated by US EPA Tier 2 Standards and LEV III regulations proposed by CARB. The research in this paper sponsored by US DoE is focused towards developing a Tier 2 Bin 2 Emissions compliant light duty pickup truck with class leading fuel economy targets of 22.4 mpg “City” / 34.3 mpg “Highway”. Many advanced technologies comprising both engine and after-treatment systems are essential towards accomplishing this goal. The objective of this paper would be to discuss key engine technology enablers that will help in achieving the target emission levels and fuel economy. Several enabling technologies comprising air-handling, fuel system and base engine design requirements will be discussed in this paper highlighting both experimental and analytical evaluations.
Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Connecting Rod Fretting and Fretting Initiated Fatigue Fracture

2004-10-25
2004-01-3015
The influence of big-end bore fretting on connecting rod fatigue fracture is investigated. A finite element model, including rod-bearing contact interaction, is developed to simulate a fatigue test rig where the connecting rod is subjected to an alternating uniaxial load. Comparison of the model results with a rod fracture from the fatigue rig shows good correlation between the fracture location and the peak ‘Ruiz’ criterion, rather than the peak tensile stress location, indicating the potential of fretting to initiate a fatigue fracture and the usefulness of the ‘Ruiz’ criterion as a measure of location and severity. The model is extended to simulate a full engine cycle using pressure loads from a bearing EHL analysis. A fretting map and a ‘Ruiz’ criterion map are developed for the full engine cycle, giving an indication of a safe ‘Ruiz’ level from an existing engine which has been in service for more than 5 years.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Varying EGR Test Conditions on a Direct Injection of Natural Gas Heavy-Duty Engine with High EGR Levels

2004-10-25
2004-01-2955
Determining what exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control parameters have the largest impact on engine performance and emissions is of critical importance when developing an EGR-equipped engine. These tests studied the effects of varying the net charge mass, the fresh air charge mass, the indicated power, and the oxygen equivalence ratio at various EGR fractions. The research was carried out on a direct-injection, natural gas fuelled, pilot-ignited four-stroke heavy-duty engine using Westport Innovations Inc.'s pilot-ignited, direct injection of natural gas technology. The testing was carried out using a prototype injector and the standard diesel-fuelled engine's combustion chamber. The results indicate that fuel efficiency, as well as emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) depend primarily on the EGR level, and not on the values of the EGR control parameters.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Reingested Particles on Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Direct Injection of Natural Gas Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3411
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to control NOx emissions from direct-injection engines results in the reintroduction of exhaust particulate matter (PM) into the intake manifold. The influence of this recirculated PM on emissions from a pilot-ignited direct injection of natural gas engine was studied by installing a filter in the EGR system. Comparison tests at fixed engine conditions were conducted to identify differences between filtered and unfiltered EGR. No significant variations in gaseous or PM mass emissions were detected. This indicates that the recirculated PM is not contributing substantially to the increases in PM mass emissions commonly observed with EGR. Reductions in black carbon and ultra-fine particle exhaust concentrations in the exhaust were observed at the highest EGR fractions with the filter installed.
Technical Paper

The Application of Acoustic Radiation Modes to Engine Oil Pan Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1844
In modern engine design, downsizing and reducing weight while still providing an increased amount of power has been a general trend in recent decades. Traditionally, an engine design with superior NVH performance usually comes with a heavier, thus sturdier structure. Therefore, modern engine design requires that NVH be considered in the very early design stage to avoid modifications of engine structure at the last minute, when very few changes can be made. NVH design optimization of engine components has become more practical due to the development of computer software and hardware. However, there is still a need for smarter algorithms to draw a direct relationship between the design and the radiated sound power. At the moment, techniques based on modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) have gained popularity in design optimization for their good performance in sound pressure prediction.
Journal Article

Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations

2013-09-24
2013-01-2421
With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. and global economies.
Technical Paper

Sooted Diesel Engine Oil Pumpability Studies as the Basis of a New Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oil Performance Specification

2002-05-06
2002-01-1671
Changing diesel engine emission requirements for 2002 have led many diesel engine manufacturers to incorporate cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, as a means of reducing NOx. This has resulted in higher levels of soot being present in used oils. This paper builds on earlier work with fresh oils and describes a study of the effect of highly sooted oils on the low temperature pumpability in diesel engines. Four experimental diesel engine oils, of varying MRV TP-1 viscosities, were run in a Mack T-8 engine to obtain a soot level ranging between 6.1 and 6.6%. These sooted oils were then run in a Cummins M11 engine installed in a low temperature cell. Times to lubricate critical engine components were measured at temperatures ranging between -10 °C and -25 °C. A clear correlation was established between the MRV TP-1 viscosity of a sooted oil and the time needed to lubricate critical engine components at a given test temperature.
Technical Paper

Soot Emission Reduction from Post Injection Strategies in a High Pressure Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0114
Compression ignition engines, including those that use natural gas as the major fuel, produce emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Westport Inc. has developed the pilot-ignited high-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) natural gas engine system. Although HPDI engines produce less soot than comparable conventional diesel engines, further reductions in engine-out soot emissions is desired. In diesel engines, multiple injections can help reduce both NOx and PM. The effect of post injections on HPDI engines was not studied previously. The present research shows that late injection of a second gas pulse can significantly reduce PM and CO from HPDI engines without significantly increasing NOx or fuel consumption. In-cylinder pressure measurements were used to characterize the heat release resulting from the multiple injections. Experiments showed that most close-coupled split injection strategies provided no significant emissions benefit and less stable operation.
Journal Article

Smart Sensing and Decomposition of NOx and NH3 Components from Production NOx Sensor Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1157
Production NO sensors have a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia which limits their use for closed-loop SCR control and diagnostics since increases in sensor output can be caused by either gas component. Recently, Ammonia/NO Ratio (ANR) perturbation methods have been proposed for determining the dominant component in the post-SCR exhaust as part of the overall SCR control strategy, but these methods or the issue of sensor cross-sensitivity have not been critically evaluated or studied in their own right. In this paper the dynamic sensor direct- and cross-sensitivities are estimated from experimental FTIR data (after compensating for the dynamics of the gas sampling system) and compared to nominal values provided by the manufacturer. The ANR perturbation method and the use of different input excitations are then discussed within an analytical framework, and applied to experimental data from a large diesel engine.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Generation with Exhaust Heat Recovery from a 15 liter Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0339
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
Technical Paper

Round Robin Noise Measurement System Analysis Using Light Duty Diesel Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2299
NVH development of light duty diesel engines require significant collaboration with the OEM as compared to medium duty and heavy duty diesel engines. Typically, competitive benchmark studies and customer expectations define the NVH targets at the vehicle level and are subsequently cascaded down to the powertrain level. For engine manufacturing companies like Cummins Inc., it is imperative to work closely with OEM to deliver on the NVH expectations. In certain situations, engine level NVH targets needs to be demonstrated in the OEM or 3rd party acoustic test facility for customer satisfaction or commercial purposes. Engine noise tests across different noise test facilities may introduce some variation due to differences in the acoustic test facilities, test hardware, instrumentation differences, etc. In addition, the engine itself is a major source of variation.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4108
A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Journal Article

Piston Friction Reduction by Reducting Piston Compression Height for Large Bore Engine Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1044
Improving engine efficiency and reducing the total cost of ownership demands engine friction loss reduction through optimal design, especially for large bore application considering the amount of fuel the engine consumes during its service life. Power cylinder is a big source for engine friction and piston accounts for about 25% to 47% of the power cylinder friction [1]. Thus the piston design needs to be optimized to minimize friction; and at the same time, not sacrificing the durability. This work focuses on piston friction reduction by utilizing shorter compression height piston for large bore engine application through analytical simulation study. From the simulation study, 12.5% friction reduction has been achieved in the piston skirt to liner interface for the shorter piston with longer connecting-rod compared to the baseline design.
Journal Article

Piston Cooling Nozzle Oil Jet Evaluation Using CFD and a High Speed Camera

2016-09-27
2016-01-8100
Piston cooling nozzles/jets play several crucial roles in the power cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Primarily, they help with the thermal management of the piston and provide lubrication to the cylinder liner and the piston’s wrist pin. In order to evaluate the oil jet characteristics from various piston cooling nozzle (PCN) designs, a quantitative and objective process was developed. The PCN characterization began with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulent model to analyze the mean oil velocity and flow distribution at the nozzle exit/tip. Subsequently, the PCN was tested on a rig for a given oil temperature and pressure. A high-speed camera captured images at 2500 frames per second to observe the evolution of the oil stream as a function of distance from the nozzle exit. An algorithm comprised of standard digital image processing techniques was created to calculate the oil jet width and density.
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0973
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates a serious long-term durability issue for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they sinter to the substrate.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2333
Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

PM and NOx Reduction by Injection Parameter Alterations in a Direct Injected, Pilot Ignited, Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine With EGR at Various Operating Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1733
The use of pilot-ignited, direct-injected natural gas in a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine has been shown to reduce emissions while maintaining performance and efficiency. Adding recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) has been shown to further reduce emissions of nitric oxides (NOx), albeit at the cost of increased hydrocarbons (tHC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) emissions at high EGR fractions. Previous tests have suggested that reducing the delay between the diesel and natural gas injections, increasing the injection pressure, or adjusting the combustion timing have individually achieved substantial emissions benefits. To investigate the effectiveness of combining these techniques, and of using them over a wide range of operating conditions, a series of tests were carried out. The first set of tests investigated the interactions between these effects and the EGR fraction.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Dual-fuel CNG/Diesel Combustion Strategies to Reduce CO2 Emissions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1313
Dual-fuel combustion strategies combining a premixed charge of natural gas and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce CO2 emissions as a result of the high Hydrogen/Carbon (H/C) ratio of methane gas. Moreover, the high octane number of methane means that dual-fuel combustion strategies can be employed on compression ignition engines without the need to vary the engine compression ratio, thereby significantly reducing the cost of engine hardware modifications. The aim of this investigation is to explore the fundamental combustion phenomena occurring when methane is ignited with a pilot injection of diesel fuel. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder optical research engine which is typical of modern, light-duty diesel engines. A high-speed digital camera recorded time-resolved combustion luminosity and an intensified CCD camera was used for single-cycle OH*chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Multivariable Control of Dual Loop EGR Diesel Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo

2014-04-01
2014-01-1357
In this paper we consider the issues facing the design of a practical multivariable controller for a diesel engine with dual exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loops. This engine architecture requires the control of two EGR valves (high pressure and low pressure), an exhaust throttle (ET) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). A systematic approach suitable for production-intent air handling control using Model Predictive Control (MPC) for diesel engines is proposed. Furthermore, the tuning process of the proposed design is outlined. Experimental results for the performance of the proposed design are implemented on a 2.8L light duty diesel engine. Transient data over an LA-4 cycle for the closed loop performance of the controller are included to prove the effectiveness of the proposed design process.
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