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Technical Paper

Spray Impingement in the Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Regime

The main goal of this paper is to acquire more insight into the relationship between wall and piston impingement of liquid fuel and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions (UHC) emissions, under early direct injection (EDI) premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operating conditions. To this end, the vaporization process is modeled for various operating conditions using a commercial CFD code (StarCD). Predicted values for liquid core penetration, or liquid length LL , have been successfully checked against experimental data from literature over a wide range of operating conditions. Next, the correlation between the CFD results for wall and piston impingement and measured UHC emissions is studied. The diesel fuel used in the experiments is modeled as n-dodecane and n-heptadecane, representing the low and high end of the diesel boiling range, respectively. A distinction is made between liquid spray impingement on the piston surface and cylinder liner.
Technical Paper

On the Application of the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) Approach to the Simulation of an Igniting Diesel Spray

A study on the modeling of fuel sprays in diesel engines will be presented. First, modeling of non-reacting diesel spray formation is studied in Fluent and Star-CD. The main objective however is to model combustion of the spray using a generic approach. This is achieved by applying a detailed chemistry tabulation method, called FGM (Flamelet Generated Manifold). Using this approach will make additional ignition modeling, which is conventional, obsolete. The FGM method is implemented in Fluent and Star-CD. Subsequently, constant volume spray combustion and full engine cycle simulations are performed. Spray formation is modeled with Lagrangian type models that are available in Fluent and Star-CD, and also with a 1D Euler-Euler spray model that is implemented and applied in 3D Fluent simulations. The results are compared with EHPC (Eindhoven High Pressure Cell) experiments, data from Sandia National Laboratories and IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole).
Technical Paper

Gasoline-Diesel Dual Fuel: Effect of Injection Timing and Fuel Balance

Recently, some studies have shown high efficiencies using controlled auto-ignition by blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity. This concept has been shown to give high efficiency and, because of the largely premixed charge, low emission levels. The origin of this high efficiency, however, has only partly been explained. Part of it was attributed to a lower temperature combustion, originating in lower heat losses. Another part of the gain was attributed to a faster, more Otto-like (i.e. constant volume) combustion. Since the concept was mainly demonstrated on one single test setup so far, an experimental study has been performed to reproduce these results and gain more insight into their origin. Therefore one cylinder of a heavy duty test engine has been equipped with an intake port gasoline injection system, primarily to investigate the effects of the balance between the two fuels, and the timing of the diesel injection.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Fuel Composition Impact on PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is a combustion concept that holds the promise of combining emission levels of a spark-ignition engine with the efficiency of a compression-ignition engine. In a short term scenario, PCCI would be used in the lower load operating range only, combined with conventional diesel combustion at higher loads. This scenario relies on using near standard components and conventional fuels; therefore a set of fuels is selected that only reflects short term changes in diesel fuel composition. Experiments have been conducted in one dedicated test cylinder of a modified 6-cylinder 12.6 liter heavy duty DAF engine. This test cylinder is equipped with a stand-alone fuel injection system, EGR circuit and air compressor. For the low load operating range the compression ratio has been lowered to 12:1 by means of a thicker head gasket.