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Technical Paper

Technologies of DENSO Common Rail for Diesel Engine and Consumer Values

2004-10-18
2004-21-0075
Electronics has greatly contributed to the operation of internal combustion engines. This is especially evident in the benefits that it has brought to drivers, such as enhancing the “Fun to Drive” experience and in reducing the cost of fuel. Moreover, this progress has resulted in minimizing environmental degradation, and yet continuing to support improvements in performance. In the diesel engine, which has superb fuel economy, the innovative progress has been achieved by the common rail technology. The common rail system has the features of high injection pressure control in all engine speed range, highly precise injection control and multiple injections per combustion cycle. The latest 2nd generation of the DENSO common rail system features 1800 bar injection pressure, and five times multiple injection with fully electronic control to ensure precise small injection quantities. This technology has been commercialized into passenger car products in the European market.
Technical Paper

Reliability of SiC-MOSFET for Hybrid Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0337
This paper describes the reliability of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET. We clarified the relation between the lifetime of the gate oxide and the crystal defects. We fabricated MOS diodes using thermal oxidation and measured their lifetimes by TDDB (Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown) measurement. The wear-out lifetime is sufficient for hybrid vehicle but many MOS diodes broke in shorter time. The breakdown points were defined by Photo-emission method. Finally, we classified the defects by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). A TSD (Threading Screw Dislocation) plays the most important role in the lifetime degradation of the gate oxide. The lifetime of the gate oxide area, in which a TSD is included, is shorter by two orders of magnitude than a wear-out breakdown. The mechanism by which threading dislocations degrade the gate oxide lifetime was not discovered. To explain the degradation, we assumed two models, the shape effect and the oxide quality degradation.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cranking Noise from High Voltage Starter for One-Motor Two-Clutch Hybrid Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1167
In this paper, we propose a high voltage brushless AC starter that contributes to improved fuel efficiency and a reduction in the cost of the one-motor two-clutch hybrid system, which we call a 1MG2CL system. We have named it the HV starter, and it is composed of an AC motor, inverter and pinion with a shift mechanism. One of the issues with the 1MG2CL system is the high electrical energy when starting an ICE as it switches over from EV drive to HEV drive. While the ICE is starting, the main motor has to crank the ICE via the clutch; the clutch slips to absorb the main motor power, so the main motor has to output a high power to overcome the loss. Therefore, to contribute to reducing the electrical power by eliminating clutch slip losses, we developed an HV starter as a dedicated ICE starting device. Thanks to the reduction in electrical power, the HV starter is able to improve fuel efficiency and reduce system costs.
Technical Paper

Realizing Robust Combustion with High Response Diesel Injector with Controlled Diffusive Spray Nozzle and Closed Loop Injection Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0845
The Diesel engine performance was drastically improved since the introduction of the Common Rail system in 1996. Over the years, the Common Rail technology was continuously improved to reduce the fuel consumption, engine-out emissions and enhance the drivability. However further technical improvement steps for a precise control of combustion are required to satisfy the increasing stringent worldwide emissions limits and to contribute to attractively performing Diesel powered vehicles. Common Rail injectors significantly contribute to improve the combustion. This improvement can be achieved by precisely controlling the injected fuel quantity and increasing the injection pressure. In addition to those features, a more rectangular injection rate, the capability of stable multiple injections at shorter intervals and the control of the spray shape, are required to achieve an optimized fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

New Spray Concept Development for Dual Injection System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0835
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems are a main development focus for global environment issues and energy security. At the same time, it is also important to challenge further development of Multi point injection (MPI) systems for a simple and robust combustion system responding to global fuels ,required for the growing automotive markets in emerging countries, especially in the A, B vehicle segments. This paper focuses on reducing wall wetting in cold conditions and maximizing mixture cooling by fuel vaporization (preventing knocking) in high load conditions as key development points of MPI systems. We propose a dual MPI system enhancing direct flow of spray into the combustion chamber to gain part of the benefit of GDI in addition to the homogeneity advantage of an MPI system. This dual MPI system requires finer atomization with at the same time robustness against intake airflow.
Technical Paper

Maximizing Coasting of 48 V Vehicles with Cold-Storage Evaporator

2018-05-30
2018-37-0023
One of the main features of 48 V vehicles is the ability to coast at high speeds with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) off. This can be realized due to the high torque and power the 48 V motor-generator provides which allows a quick and smooth re-cranking of the ICE. The coasting feature reduces the fuel consumption depending on frequency and duration of the coasting events. This depends in turn on driving pattern, driving style, State-of-Charge of the 48 V and 12 V batteries and the air-conditioning (A/C) system. In summer, if the A/C runs with a mechanical belt-driven compressor, the cabin inlet air temperature from the evaporator inevitably increases during each coasting event as the ICE turns off and cannot operate the compressor. If the evaporator temperature reaches a certain threshold at which the cabin comfort is noticeably affected, the ICE is re-cranked for resuming air-conditioning.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Soot Formation/Oxidation Characteristics of Compositionally Unique International Diesel Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0548
With the global adoption of diesel common rail systems and the wide variation in composition of local commercial fuels, modern fuel injection systems must be robust against diverse fuel properties. To bridge the knowledge gap on the effects of compositional variation for real commercial fuels on spray combustion characteristics, the present work quantifies ignition and soot formation/oxidation in three unique, international diesel blends. Schlieren imaging, excited-state hydroxyl radical (OH*) chemiluminescence imaging and diffused back-illumination extinction imaging were employed to quantify vapor penetration, ignition, and soot formation and oxidation for high-pressure sprays in a constant-volume, pre-burn chamber. The three fuels were procured from Finland, Japan and Brazil and have cetane numbers of 64.1, 56.1 and 45.4, respectively.
Technical Paper

Ignition Simulation and Visualization for Spark Plug Electrode Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0940
An ignition simulation and an ignition visualization method that analyze effects of spark plug electrode design have been developed. In the ignition simulation, a programmed heat source corresponds to the discharge energy in the spark gap, and the flame-kernel generation and flame propagation are calculated on the heat balance in the gap, in consideration of thermal transmission to the electrodes. The results by this simulation indicate that high ignitability of fine ground electrode spark plugs is because the miniaturization of the ground electrode reduces the heat loss, and flame growth is thus less disturbed by the loss. The ignition visualization includes taking Schlieren images by laser light to capture flame kernels with weaker luminescence intensity compared to ignition discharge spark luminescence. This visualization enables the observation of the influence of the shape of spark plug electrodes on flame growth.
Technical Paper

IGBT Gate Control Methods to Reduce Electrical Power Losses of Hybrid Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1224
Reducing the loss of the power control unit (PCU) in a hybrid vehicle (HV) is an important part of improving HV fuel efficiency. Furthermore the loss of power devices (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes) used in the PCU must be reduced since this amounts to approximately 20% of the total electrical loss in an HV. One of the issues for reducing loss is the trade-off relationship with reducing voltage surge. To restrict voltage surge, it is necessary to slow down the switching speed of the IGBT. In contrast, the loss reduction requires the high speed switching. One widely known method to improve this trade-off relationship is to increase the gate voltage in two stages. However, accurate and high-speed operation of the IGBT gate control circuit is difficult to accomplish. This research clarifies a better condition of the two-stage control and designed a circuit that improves this trade-off relationship by increasing the speed of feedback control.
Technical Paper

High Resolution LiDAR Based on Single Chip SPAD Array

2019-04-02
2019-01-0119
It is important that Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving Systems (AD) detect on-road objects, road vehicles and pedestrians. The typical detection devices mounted on ADAS and AD include a camera, a millimeter-wave radar and a Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR). Since LiDAR can obtain accurate distance and fine spatial resolution due to its short wavelength, it is expected that small objects such as a tire can be detected. However, the conventional LiDAR is equipped with multiple light transmitters and light receivers such as avalanche photo diodes. This causes LiDAR system to be expensive and large in size. Aiming to reduce the cost and size of LiDAR, we employed Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) which can be fabricated by CMOS process and easily arrayed. We also developed “Single Chip SPAD Array“ in which the two-dimensional array of SPAD and a signal processing block of range calculation were integrated into a single chip.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug with Combustion Pressure Sensor

2003-03-03
2003-01-0707
Combustion-pressure-data-based feedback control of fuel injection and EGR is the most promising diesel system, since it can reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as noise and vibration, and improve the evaluation efficiency for adapting engine performance to. We developed a combustion pressure sensor installed inside the glow plug. This is superior in maintainability and ease of installation, and can detect the combustion pressure in each cylinder at high accuracy and low cost, with no need for engine modification.
Journal Article

Ejector Energy-Saving Technology for Mobile Air Conditioning Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0120
This study reports on a new generation ECS (Ejector Cycle System) which includes a highly efficient ejector and a novel system configuration. The ejector is working as a fluid jet pump that recovers expansion energy which is wasted in the conventional refrigeration cycle decompression process, and converts the recovered expansion energy into pressure energy and raises the compressor suction pressure. Consequently, the ejector system can reduce power consumption of the compressor by using the above mentioned pressure-rising effect and improve energy efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. The ejector consists of a nozzle, a suction section, a mixing section and a diffuser. The objective of this study is to improve actual fuel economy of all vehicles by ejector technology. The previous generation ECS was reported in 2012 SAE World Congress1. Now, a new generation ECS has been successfully developed and released in the market for Mobile Air Conditioning systems as of 2013.
Technical Paper

ECU Structure Strategy to Detect Lift Timing of GDI Solenoid Injectors with High Precision

2017-03-28
2017-01-1628
In gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems, various injection types are needed to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption. This requires high-precision injection in the region in which the amount of injection is small. Achieving injection of a small amount of fuel using GDI solenoid injectors requires the use of the half-lift region. In this region, however, the variation in the injection amount tends to increase due to the variation in the lift behavior of the injectors, posing the problem of how to achieve high-precision injection. To reduce the variation, we analyzed the lift timing out of the injector current and voltage signal with the ECU in an attempt to adjust the amount of injection.
Technical Paper

Development of the Large Type Electric-Driven Refrigerator for the HV Truck

2017-03-28
2017-01-0137
In respect to the present large refrigerator trucks, sub-engine type is the main product, but the basic structure does not change greatly since the introduction for around 50 years. A sub-engine type uses an industrial engine to drive the compressor, and the environmental correspondence such as the fuel consumption, the emission is late remarkably. In addition, most of trucks carry the truck equipment including the refrigerator which consumes fuel about 20% of whole vehicle. Focusing on this point, the following are the reports about the system development plan for fuel consumption reduction of the large size refrigerator truck. New concept is to utilize electrical power from HV system to power the electric-driven refrigerator. We have developed a fully electric-driven refrigerator system, which uses regenerated energy that is dedicated for our refrigerator system.
Technical Paper

Development of a New MOS Rectifier for High-Efficiency Alternators

2017-03-28
2017-01-1240
For the purpose of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce energy loss in the alternator. We have lowered the resistance of the rectifying device and connecting components, and control the rectifying device with an IC to reduce rectification loss. For the package design, we have changed the structure of the part on which the rectifying device is mounted into a high heat dissipation type. The new structure has enabled optimizing the size of the rectifying device, resulting in the reduction of size of the package. In addition, the rectifying device is mounted using a new soldering material and a new process, which has improved the reliability of the connection. Moreover, since the alternator has introduced a new system, the controller IC has a function for preventing malfunction of the rectifying device and a function for detecting abnormalities, in order to ensure safety.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact and High-Performance Radiator for Thermal Management of Environmentally-Friendly Cars

2018-04-03
2018-01-0087
To comply with increasing fuel efficiency regulations, a low temperature radiator (LT radiator) is required to cool the charge-air system of a turbocharged engine. These engines are important to use for environmentally-friendly cars. Since heavy-duty and high-performance cars demand high cooling performance, the main radiator alone is typically insufficient in meeting the vehicle’s cooling requirements. An additional radiator installed in the front of the wheel-well is required to meet the extra cooling demand. In order to install this radiator in the front of the wheel-well, guaranteed performance in the limited packaging space and impact resistance of the leading tube edge are required. We developed the Supplementary Inner-Fin Radiator (SIR) which achieves the compact, high-performance, and durability requirements by use of an inner-fin tube (I/F tube). The purpose of this paper is to report our design approach and product specifications of the SIR.
Technical Paper

Development of Sintered Bearing Material with Higher Corrosion Resistance for Fuel Pumps

2007-04-16
2007-01-0415
In recent years, due to a growing demand for improvement in the performance and reliability of automotive fuel pumps and the advancement of globalization, automotive fuel pumps are being used with inferior gasolines that include more sulfur, organic acids or compounds, compared to gasolines used in general regions. Conventionally, bearings in these fuel pumps have mainly been made of sintered bronze alloy. With this bronze alloy, however, it is difficult to achieve a significant improvement in the tribology characteristics of bearings, in order to meet the demands for performance improvement, etc., and corrosion is severe in inferior gasolines that contain highly-concentrated organic acids or sulfur and the corrosion products that accompany them. Therefore, in order to obtain fine tribology characteristics and superior corrosion resistance in gasolines with highly-concentrated organic acids and sulfur, various copper-based alloys were studied using the powder metallurgy process.
Journal Article

Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-Class Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1227
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new compact-class hybrid vehicle (HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system for the improvement of fuel efficiency. For this system, a new Power Control Unit (PCU) is developed. The feature of the PCU is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. In expectation of rapid popularization of HV, the aptitude for mass production is also improved. The PCU, which plays an important role in the new system, is our main focus in this paper. Its development is described.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0676
In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
Technical Paper

Development of High Efficiency Rectifier with MOSFET in “eSC Alternator”

2017-03-28
2017-01-1228
Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
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