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Journal Article

Use of an Eulerian/Lagrangian Framework to Improve the Air Intake System of an Automobile with Respect to Snow Ingress

A simulation approach to predict the amount of snow which is penetrating into the air filter of the vehicle’s engine is important for the automotive industry. The objective of our work was to predict the snow ingress based on an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software and to compare the simulation results to measurements in order to confirm our simulation approach. An additional objective was to use the simulation approach to improve the air intake system of an automobile. The measurements were performed on two test sites. On the one hand we made measurements on a natural test area in Sweden to reproduce real driving scenarios and thereby confirm our simulation approach. On the other hand the simulation results of the improved air intake system were compared to measurements, which were carried out in a climatic wind tunnel in Stuttgart.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Technical Paper

Specifics of Daimler's new SCR system (BLUETEC) in the Diesel Sprinter Van - Certified for NAFTA 2010

Beginning in 2010, Daimler's well-known Diesel Sprinter van has to fulfill the new and clearly tighter NOx emission standards of NAFTA10 (EPA, CARB). This requires an integrated approach of further engine optimizations and the implementation of an innovative exhaust aftertreatment technology. The goal was to develop an overall concept which meets simultaneously the tightened emission standards (including OBD limits) and the increasing customer demands of more power and torque without losing the high fuel efficiency of the small and highly efficient 3-liter V6 diesel engine OM642, which already has been installed in the NAFTA07 Sprinter. In the early stages of the concept phase, the most appropriate NOx aftertreatment technology and certification form (engine or vehicle) had to be selected for this specific vehicle class in the van segment with enhanced requirements to durability, economical efficiency and specific driving behavior.
Journal Article

Soot Simulation under Diesel Engine Conditions Using a Flamelet Approach

The subject of this work is 3D numerical simulations of combustion and soot emissions for a passenger car diesel engine. The CFD code STAR-CD version 3.26 [1] is used to resolve the flowfield. Soot is modeled using a detailed kinetic soot model described by Mauss [2]. The model includes a detailed description of the formation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The coupling between the turbulent flowfield and the soot model is achieved through a flamelet library approach, with transport of the moments of the soot particle size distribution function as outlined by Wenzel et al. [3]. In this work we extended this approach by considering acetylene feedback between the soot model and the combustion model. The model was further improved by using new gas-phase kinetics and new fitting procedures for the flamelet soot library.
Technical Paper

Soot Model Calibration Based on Laser Extinction Measurements

In this work a detailed soot model based on stationary flamelets is used to simulate soot emissions of a reactive Diesel spray. In order to represent soot formation and oxidation processes properly, a calibration of the soot reaction rates has to be performed. This model calibration is usually performed on basis of engine out soot measurements. Contrary to this, in this work the soot model is calibrated on local soot concentrations along the spray axis obtained from laser extinction chamber measurements. The measurements are performed with B7 certification Diesel and a series production multihole injector to obtain engine similar boundary conditions. In order to ensure that the flow and mixture field is captured well by the CFD-simulation, the simulated liquid penetration lengths and flame lift-off lengths are compared to chamber measurements.
Technical Paper

Sensor for Directly Determining the State of a NOx Storage Catalyst

In order to control NOx reduction with NOx storing lean NOx traps (LNT), a gas sensor downstream of the LNT is presently preferred. It is a disadvantage that no means are available to gauge directly the LNT NOx loading level and the catalyst quality. The presented novel sensor consists of interdigital electrodes that are deposited on a planar substrate. On its reverse side, a temperature sensor is applied. Both sides are covered with the original catalyst coating, allowing detecting directly electrical impedance and temperature of the coating. Such sensors were integrated in different positions of an LNT. It is shown in synthetic exhausts as well as in engine tests that in-situ measurements of the electrical impedance of the LNT coating are appropriate to determine directly the catalyst status. Hence, the local degree of NOx loading as well as the local regeneration status can be measured. Furthermore, sulfur poisoning, desulfurization, and thermal ageing can be directly seen.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wheel Forces and Moments and Their Influence to the Interior Noise

This paper describes the prediction process of wheel forces and moments via indirect transfer path analysis, followed by an analysis of the influence of wheel variants and suspension modifications. It proposes a method to calculate transmission of noise to the vehicle interior where wheel forces and especially moments were taken into account. The calculation is based on an indirect transfer path analysis with geometrical modifications of the frequency response functions. To generate high quality broadband results, this paper also points out some of the main clearance cutting criteria. The method has been successfully implemented to show the influence of wheel tire combinations as well as the influence of suspension modifications. Case studies have been performed and will be presented in this paper. Operational noise and vibration measurements have been carried out on Daimler NVH test tracks. The frequency response functions were estimated in an acoustic laboratory.
Journal Article

Prediction of Interior Noise in a Sedan Due to Exterior Flow

Aero-vibro-acoustic prediction of interior noise associated with exterior flow requires accurate predictions of both fluctuating surface pressures across the exterior of a vehicle and efficient models of the vibro-acoustic transmission of these surface pressures to the interior of a vehicle. The simulation strategy used in this paper combines both CFD and vibro-acoustic methods. An accurate excitation field (which accounts for both hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure fluctuations) is calculated with a hybrid CAA approach based on an incompressible unsteady flow field with an additional acoustic wave equation. To obtain the interior noise level at the driver's ears a vibro-acoustic model is used to calculate the response of the structure and interior cavities. The aero-vibro-acoustic simulation strategy is demonstrated for a Mercedes-Benz S-class and the predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Volute Turbine under Pulsating Engine Boundary Conditions

Future CO2 emission legislations require the internal combustion engine to become more efficient than ever. Of great importance is the boosting system enabling down-sizing and down-speeding. However, the thermodynamic coupling of a reciprocating internal combustion engine and a turbocharger poses a great challenge to the turbine as pulsating admission conditions are imposed onto the turbocharger turbine. This paper presents a novel approach to turbocharger turbine development developed at Daimler Truck AG, and outlines this process using the example of an asymmetric twin scroll turbocharger applied to a heavy duty truck engine application. In a first step relevant operating points are defined taking into account fuel consumption on reference routes for the target application. These operation points are transferred into transient boundary conditions imposed on the turbine.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Journal Article

On Road Durability and Performance Test of Diesel Particulate Filter with BS III and BS IV Fuel for Indian Market

The future emission regulation (BS V) in India is expected to create new challenges to meet the particulate matter (PM) limit for diesel cars. The upcoming emission norms will bring down the limit of PM by 80 % when compared to BS IV emission norms. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is one of the promising technologies to achieve this emission target. The implementation of DPF system into Indian market poses challenges against fuel quality, driving cycles and warranty. Hence, it is necessary to do a detailed on-road evaluation of the DPF system with commercially available fuel under country specific drive cycles. Therefore, we conducted full vehicle durability testing with DPF system which is available in the European market to evaluate its robustness and reliability with BS III fuel (≤350ppm sulfur) & BS IV (≤50ppm sulfur) fuel under real Indian driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Transient Heat-Up of a Passenger Vehicle during a Trailer Towing Uphill Drive

In the digital prototype development process of a new Mercedes-Benz, thermal protection is an important task that has to be fulfilled. In the early stages of development, numerical methods are used to detect thermal hotspots in order to protect temperature sensitive parts. These methods involve transient full Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) simulations to predict dynamic vehicle heat-up during critical load cases. In order to simulate thermal control mechanisms, a coupled 1D to 3D thermal vehicle model is built in which the coolant and oil circuit of the engine, as well as the exhaust flow are captured in detail. When performing a transient 3D VTM analysis, the conduction and radiation phenomena are simulated using a transient structure model while the convective phenomena are co-simulated in a steady state fluid model. Both models are brought to interaction at predetermined points by an automatized coupling method.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Flow through an Alternator inside an Engine Compartment of a Passenger Car

In this study the numerical simulation of the flow through an alternator inside an engine compartment of a passenger car is investigated. Specifically the interaction of the flow through the alternator with the flow through the engine compartment is explored in detail. The results are compared with a corresponding numerical simulation of an alternator in a surrounding of a test facility and with a numerical simulation of the flow through an engine compartment without taking into account the internal flow through the alternator. Finally the air temperature near the alternator and also the temperature of some components inside the alternator are compared with experimental values measured during a typical load case used for the thermal protection of the passenger car.
Technical Paper

New V6-Diesel-Engine for the Daimler Van “Sprinter” Certified to Emission-Regulation NAFTA2007

The new Sprinter targets the USA and Canada markets nationwide to reconfirm Daimlers statement for Diesel engine in vans. Consequentially, the MY2007 Sprinter follows his successful predecessor as again the first - and up to now the only - Diesel vehicle in its class now meeting even the strict EPA07 requirement in California. For the growing market in North America an unique development for the successor for the previous 5-cylinder Diesel Sprinter had been made. The new 3 liter V6 Diesel engine is based on numerous corporate wide versions from Mercedes and Chrysler Passenger cars and SUVs and has its roots also in smaller and larger Mercedes vans. Effective January 2007 the NAFTA04 requirements have been replaced by the NAFTA07 values. Meeting those led to significant changes of the latest Sprinter in European EURO4 version. Both, engine and exhaust hardware as well as the ECU-data had been modified consequentially.
Journal Article

Modelling of NOx Storage + SCR Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment System with Internal Generation of Ammonia

Combination of an NOx storage and reduction catalyst (NSRC, called also lean NOx trap, LNT) and a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH₃ (NH₃-SCR) offers a potential to significantly increase the efficiency of NSRC-based exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Under most situations the SCR catalyst is able to adsorb the NH₃ peaks generated in the NSRC during the regeneration and utilize it for additional NOx reduction in the course of the consequent lean phase. This synergy becomes more important with the aged NSRC, where generally lower NOx conversions and higher NH₃ yields in wider range of operating temperatures are observed (in comparison with the fresh or de-greened NSRC). In this paper we present global kinetic models for the NSRC (Pt/Ba/Ce/gγ-Al₂O₃ catalyst type) and NH₃-SCR (Fe-ZSM5 catalyst type).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Injected Diesel Fuel Conversion and Heat Release in Oxidation Catalyst: 3D-CFD & 1D Channels Approach

A system for controlled heat generation in exhaust pipeline is studied, consisting of fuel injector and oxidation catalyst (plus connecting pipes). A 3D-CFD software (StarCD) coupled with a tailored 1D model of catalytic monolith channel (XMR) are employed for simulations of realistic, fully 3D system geometry. Exhaust gas flow, fuel injection, and distribution at the catalyst inlet is solved by 3D-CFD, while the processes inside individual representative channels are simulated by the effective 1D model. The 3D-CFD software calls iteratively the 1D channel model with proper boundary conditions and solves 3D temperature profile over the monolith, utilizing local enthalpy fluxes (including gas-solid heat transfer and reaction enthalpy) calculated by the 1D channel model. Seven representative hydrocarbons are used for characterisation of Diesel fuel composition with respect to catalytic oxidation kinetics.
Journal Article

Modeling and Numerical Calculation of Snow Particles Entering the Air Intake of an Automobile

A physically based model to predict the amount of snow which is entering the air intake of an automobile is extremely important for the automotive industry. It allows to improve the air intake system in the development state so that new vehicles can be developed in a shorter time. Using an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach within a commercial CFD-software we set up a model and calculated the snow ingress into an air intake of an automobile. In our numerical investigations we considered different particle shapes when calculating the drag coefficient, different coefficients of restitution and different particle sizes. Furthermore two-way coupling was considered. To obtain key parameters for the simulation, we measured the size of snow particles in the Daimler climatic wind tunnel in Sindelfingen by using a microscope and a measuring device from Malvern. Besides we used mechanical snow traps to determine the snow mass flux in the climatic wind tunnel and on a test area in Sweden.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. Presenter Thomas Bardelang, Daimler AG
Technical Paper

Low-speed Boom Noise - Escalating Relevance According to CO2- Targets and High Torque Engines

The increasing shift of drive operation towards efficient engine operation points at very low engine speeds demands a concerted design and tuning of engine, drive-train, assembly attachment and body to avoid annoying low speed boom noise. An additional challenge in this area of conflict is the increasing torque of modern engines at low engine speeds. As an example for a standard passenger car, the modes of operation, which may lead to low speed boom noise, are described. Setting levers along the complete chain of effect are characterised - from cylinder pressure up to the radiating surfaces of the interior. To achieve challenging NVH-targets the application of nonlinear simulation systems is indispensable, in particular in the concept phase of a vehicle. The use of multi-body simulation is presented for a concentrated NVH-optimisation of powertrain and rear axle vibration behaviour to reduce low-speed boom noise. On entire vehicle level hybrid simulation models are useful.