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Technical Paper

Windshield Investigation - Manufacturing & Installation Stresses

An early development vehicle experienced an unusually high rate of windshield breakage. Most breaks were identified as due to impact, but the severity of impact was low. It was reasoned that the windshield should possess a greater level of robustness to impact. Many theories were put forth to explain the breakage data. It was universally agreed that the unusual breakage rate could be due to only one condition, but its source was indefinite. The condition present must be tensile stress. One of three situations were considered regarding its source: 1) the tensile stress was present in the glass after manufacture due to improper annealing; 2) the installation of the windshield into the vehicle body put the glass into stress; 3) some combination of the other two sources. A gray-field polariscope was used to measure the stresses of the windshield from both the manufacturing process as well as the installation in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hydroforming on the Mechanical Properties and Crush Behaviors of Aluminum Tubes

The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties and dynamic crush behaviors of tapered aluminum 6063-T4 tubes with octagonal cross section are investigated by experiments. First, the thickness profile of the hydroformed tube is measured by non-destructive examination technique using ultrasonic thickness gauge. The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties of the tube is investigated by quasi-static tensile tests of specimens prepared from different regions of the tube based on the thickness profile. The effect of hydroforming on the dynamic crush behaviors of the tube is investigated by axial crush tests under dynamic loads. Specimens and tubes are tested in two different heat treatment conditions: hydroformed-T4 (as-received) and T6. The results of the quasi-static tensile tests for the specimens in hydroformed-T4 condition show different amounts of work hardening depending on the regions, which the specimens are prepared from.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Frequency Drops in Resonant Bending Fatigue Tests of Notched Crankshaft Sections

Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Sunroof Buffeting Suppression Using a Dividing Bar

This paper presents the results of CFD study on sunroof buffeting suppression using a dividing bar. The role of a dividing bar in side window buffeting case was illustrated in a previous study [8]. For the baseline model of the selected vehicle in this study, a very high level of sunroof buffeting, 133dB, has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be significantly reduced if a dividing bar is installed at the sunroof. A further optimization study on the dividing bar demonstrates that the peak buffeting level can be reduced to 123dB for the selected vehicle if the dividing bar is installed at its optimal location, 65% of the total length from the front edge of the sunroof. The peak buffeting level can be further reduced to 100dB if the dividing bar takes its optimal width 80mm, 15% of the total length of the sunroof for this vehicle, while staying at its optimal location.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of the HANS Head and Neck Support

This paper describes additional and more recent results from the DaimlerChrysler study of HANS that includes a sensitivity analysis of HANS performance to variations in crash dummy neck length and other impact test conditions. The objective of the tests was to determine the robustness of the HANS concept in a variety of conditions that might occur in actual use. The results show that the variations in test parameters do effect injury measures from the crash dummy, but HANS provides substantial reductions in injury potential in all cases compared to not using HANS. Also, no injuries were indicated with HANS.
Technical Paper

Predicted vs. Actual Compensation in a Stamping Die

Traditional methods used to produce a die set (from developing initial machining cutter paths through finalized die tryout to produce a part that meets design intent) begin with draw simulation and development. It is here, traditionally, that scientific evaluation of actual metal stretch and theoretical ideals end. In past programs, a designed part would be simulated for stretch and a development model created to include various die compensations (i.e. springback, overcrown, etc.) based on past experience for area and amount. At this point, the die is cut and undergoes a metamorphosis through die tryout to finally produce a quality part. This is currently an open loop system. This paper will focus on the differences in the predicted way the die should look and the actual outcome (after part buyoff).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Single-Point Frontal Airbag Fire Threshold

The relationship of the airbag fire-distribution as a function of impact velocity to the airbag fire-time is studied through the use of an optimization procedure. The study is conducted by abstracting the sensor algorithm and its associated constraints into a simple mathematical formulation. An airbag fire objective function is constructed that integrates the fire-rate and fire-time requirements. The function requires the input of a single acceleration time history; it produces an output depending on the airbag fire condition. Numerical search of the optimal fire threshold curve is achieved through parameterizing this curve and applying a modified simplex search optimization algorithm that determines the optimal threshold function parameters without computing the complete objective function in the parameter space. Numerical results are given to show the effectiveness and potential difficulties with the automatic search scheme.
Technical Paper

OOP Response of THOR and Hybrid-III 50th% ATDs

The responses of the THOR and the Hybrid-III ATDs to head and neck loading due to a deploying air bag were investigated. Matched pair tests were conducted to compare the responses of the two ATDs under similar loading conditions. The two 50th percentile male ATDs, in the driver as well as the passenger positions, were placed close to the air bag systems, in order to enhance the interaction between the deploying air bag and the chin-neck-jaw regions of the ATDs. Although both ATDs nominally meet the same calibration corridors, they differ significantly in their kinematic and dynamic responses to interaction with a deploying air bag. The difference between the structural designs of the Hybrid-III's and the THOR's neck appears to result in significant differences in the manner in which the loads applied on the head are resisted.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure of Rollers in Crankshaft Fillet Rolling

In this paper, the fatigue failure of the primary roller used in a crankshaft fillet rolling process is investigated by a failure analysis and a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first discussed to introduce the important parameters that influence the fatigue life of the primary roller. The cross sections of failed primary rollers are then examined by an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to understand the microscopic characteristics of the fatigue failure process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is employed to qualitatively investigate the influences of the contact geometry on the contact pressure distribution and the Mises stress distribution near the contact area. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are then estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory.
Technical Paper

Empirical Noise Model for Power Train Noise in a Passenger Vehicle

Power train noise reaches the interior through structureborne paths and through airborne transmission of engine casing noise. To determine transfer functions from vibration to interior noise a shaker was attached at the engine attachment points, with the engine removed. A simple engine noise simulator, with loudspeaker cones on its faces, was placed in the engine compartment to measure airborne transfer functions to interior noise. Empirical noise estimates, based on the incoherent sum of contributions for individual source terms times the appropriate transfer function, compared remarkably well with measured levels obtained from dynomometer tests. Airborne transmission dominates above 1.5kHz. At lower frequencies engine casing radiation and vibration contributions are comparable.
Technical Paper

Driver out-of-position injuries mitigation and advanced restraint features development

Airbag-related out-of-position (OOP) injuries in automotive crash accident have drawn great attention by public in recent years. In the interim-final rule of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards that NHTSA issued in May 2000, OOP static test becomes a mandatory requirement of new regulation and will be phased in starting from year 2003. Due to the complexities and constraints of vehicle design, such as extreme vehicle styling and packaging as well as multiple safety requirements, it is a great challenge for both restraint safety suppliers and automobile manufacturers work together to come up with proper designs to meet requirements of new regulation and provide additional protection for both in-position and OOP occupants at various vehicle crash scenarios. In this paper, the technique of developing advanced restraint system and mitigating the OOP injuries is described.
Technical Paper

Digital Filtering for J211 Requirements using a Fast Fourier Transform Based Filter

The need for low pass filters stems from a need to eliminate high frequency noise from raw data (the output of the data acquisition system). As an example, consider the frame of a vehicle used in a crash test. The frame will exhibit high frequency vibrations, which do not affect the vehicles movement in space. The use of filters has since been expanded to include such things as the calculation of potential injury. Phaseless filters are now required for all FMVSS-208 injury calculations (see references). A single filter formula can not allow all test facilities to comply with the J211 CFC corridors. Even the SAE J211 recommended Butterworth filter may not comply with the J211 requirements. A new, universal, filtering system is required to harmonize the data processing at all testing facilities. The use of Fourier series for filtering provides a very powerful, yet overlooked, solution to today's filtering problems.
Technical Paper

Development of an Airbag System for FIA Formula One and Comparison to the HANS Head and Neck Support

A comparative investigation of airbag and HANS driver safety systems was carried out (HANS, is a Registered Trademark in the U.S.A.). With both systems, head and neck loads were reduced from potentially fatal values to values well below the injury threshold. Both systems performed similarly in reducing the potential for driver injury. For this reason and given the high costs of development and testing, there is no justification for further development of airbags for racing.
Technical Paper

Damped Accelerometers and Their Use in Vehicle Crash Testing

At one time it was considered imperative to collect high frequency accelerometer data for accurate analysis. As a result current FMVSS regulations and SAE J2570 require the use of accelerometers with damping ratio of 0.05 or less (designated as undamped). This prevents the use of damped accelerometers for regulated channels. Damped accelerometers can provide comparable data and in some cases better data than undamped accelerometers, as long as they meet specific minimum requirements. To collect the most useful data, damped accelerometers should be added to the tool box of transducers used by crash test facilities.
Technical Paper

DOE Analysis of Factors Affecting Ultimate Strength of Multiple Resistance Spot Welded Joints

More than 200 tensile-shear resistance spot welded specimens were produced and tested to analyze the effect of spot weld spacing, weld size, sheet thickness, and adhesive on the ultimate strength of joints made from a mild hot dip galvannealed steel and an unexposed quality hot dip galvannealed 590 MPa minimum tensile strength dual phase steel (DP590). The geometric layout parameters were analyzed by a design of experiment (DOE) approach. The analysis showed that weld size is a primary factor affecting the strength of the joints for a given material. It was also determined that structural adhesive created a large relative strengthening for joints made from the mild steel. Interactions of the geometrical factors are also presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Indoor Vehicle Thermal Soak Tests to Outdoor Tests

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted outdoor vehicle thermal soak tests in Golden, Colorado, in September 2002. The same environmental conditions and vehicle were then tested indoors in two DaimlerChrysler test cells, one with metal halide lamps and one with infrared lamps. Results show that the vehicle's shaded interior temperatures correlated well with the outdoor data, while temperatures in the direct sun did not. The large lamp array situated over the vehicle caused the roof to be significantly hotter indoors. Yet, inside the vehicle, the instrument panel was cooler due to the geometry of the lamp array and the spectral difference between the lamps and sun. Results indicate that solar lamps effectively heat the cabin interior in indoor vehicle soak tests for climate control evaluation and SCO3 emissions tests. However, such lamps do not effectively assess vehicle skin temperatures and glazing temperatures.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Frontal Crashes in Terms of Average Acceleration

The paper presents a comparison between the acceleration pulses of vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests with those of different single-vehicle crash tests. The severity of the full frontal rigid barrier test is compared with that of the vehicle- to-vehicle crash test based on average acceleration and time-to-zero-velocity. Based on this a 30mph full frontal rigid barrier test is found equivalent to a 41mph vehicle-to-vehicle crash. A reduced speed of 22mph for full frontal rigid barrier test is found to represent vehicle-to- vehicle crashes with 50%-100% overlap, with each vehicle travelling at 30mph. The paper also presents a comparison of the acceleration pulses from different crash tests based on the pulse shape and the pulse phase cross-correlation. None of the single-vehicle crash tests have been found to resemble vehicle-to-vehicle crashes in terms of the pulse shape and the pulse phase.
Technical Paper

Comparative Evaluation of the Q3 and Hybrid Iii 3-Year-Old Dummies in Biofidelity and Static Out-Of-Position Airbag Tests

A comparison of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old crash test dummies is presented in this paper. The performance of the dummies were compared in sixty biofidelity tests, seventy-seven static out-of-position airbag tests and sixty- three calibration tests. Various time histories and other data pertaining to accelerations, deflections, forces and moments are compared. In addition, the ease of positioning, handling, and the durability of the dummies in various out- of-position test configurations was assessed. Both the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were calibrated to their respective specifications. The Hybrid III 3-year-old met its calibration requirements, while the Q3 did not always meet its own calibration requirements. The calibration specifications of the Q3 dummy need to be re-examined and possibly refined. The biofidelity of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were evaluated in both frontal and lateral test modes.
Technical Paper

An Impact Pulse-Restraint Energy Relationship and Its Applications

This paper presents an energy relationship between vehicle impact pulses and restraint systems and applies the relationship to formulations of response factors for linear and nonlinear restraints. It also applies the relationship to derive optimal impact pulses that minimize occupant response for linear and nonlinear restraints. The relationship offers a new viewpoint to impact pulse optimization and simplifies the process mathematically. In addition, the effects of different vehicle impact pulses on the occupant responses with nonlinear restraints are studied. Finally, concepts of equivalent pulses and equal intensity pulses are presented for nonlinear restraints.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Approach for Occupant Crash Simulation

Stochastic simulation is used to account for the uncertainties inherent to the system and enables the study of crash phenomenon. For analytical purposes, random variables such as material crash properties, angle of impact, human response and the like can be characterized using statistical models. The methodology outlined in this approach is based on using the information about the probability of random variables along with structural behavior in order to quantify the scatter in the structural response. Thus the analysis gives a more complete picture of the actual simulation. Practical examples for the use of this technique are demonstrated and an overview of this approach is presented.