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Technical Paper

Vehicle Road Simulation Testing, Correlation and Variability

2005-04-11
2005-01-0856
In this paper, responses from a vehicle's suspension, chassis and body, are used to demonstrate a methodology to optimize physical test results. It is well known that there is a variability effect due to an increase of wheel unsprung mass (due to loads measurement fixturing), tire pressure, speed, etc. This paper quantifies loading variability due to Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) unsprung mass by using a rainflow cycle counting domain. Also, presents a proving ground-to-test correlation study and the data reduction techniques that are used in road simulation test development to identify the most nominal road load measurement. Fundamental technical information and analytical methodology useful in overall vehicle durability testing are discussed. Durability testing in a laboratory is designed to correlate fatigue damage rig to road. A Proving Ground (PG) loading history is often acquired by running an instrumented vehicle over one or more PG events with various drivers.
Technical Paper

Tools for Occupant Protection Analysis

2001-11-12
2001-01-2725
The design of occupant restraint systems in the automotive industry has shifted from an empirical approach to a computer aided analysis approach for many years now. Various finite element software programs have been applied in crash safety analysis, and multi-body dynamics codes have been successfully used where quick system response times were required. Most new vehicle programs are analyzed by the use of finite element tools that were used for previous program projects. Software that has specific occupant protection features may be coupled with these finite element tools, or new vehicle programs may be developed from scratch by using one tool that does all, i.e. a tool where the multi-body dynamics are integrated into the finite element method. Both these approaches will be elaborated as valid tools for occupant protection analysis. At first, the coupling between the finite element crash program LS-DYNA and the F.E.
Technical Paper

The Methods Used for Die Certification and Die Repeatability Evaluation

1999-09-28
1999-01-3217
An assessment of stamped part quality and launch readiness occurs at many intervals. This paper will focus on dimensional control activities that take place after Stamping Dies are constructed, but prior to producing the stamped parts. Die certification and die repeatability measurements have been performed at DaimlerChrysler and the results are documented. This die certification process provides an opportunity to uncover and resolve die machining issues with respect to the part math model or pre-engineered compensation model prior to producing parts. Additionally, the die repeatability process is performed to determine the ability of the die gaging to locate the incoming in-process material consistently. This paper will explain the die certification and die repeatability processes and share what we have learned. It will describe the processes, the tools, the participants, the sites, the benefits, and the measurement equipment.
Technical Paper

Subjective Evaluation of NVH CAE Model Predictions Using an Operator-in-the-Loop Driving Simulator

2001-04-30
2001-01-1590
In the past several years there has been a significant effort to increase the reliance on CAE technology to guide the vehicle design process, with the accompanying effort to reduce or eliminate vehicle prototype testing during the early design phase. Since little or no representative hardware is available early in the design, a tool is needed which allows NVH Development Engineers to subjectively experience the results of NVH CAE model predictions in a realistic driving environment. This paper documents the development of a high fidelity NVH simulator, including both audio and vibration, and the integration of this simulator into an “operator-in-the-loop” Driving Simulator. The key development of this system is its ability to incorporate NVH CAE predictions into the simulated driving environment.
Technical Paper

Springback of Sheet Metal Subjected to Multiple Bending-Unbending Cycles

2000-03-06
2000-01-1112
A Draw Bead Simulator (DBS), with modified draw beads, was employed in this study to understand the springback behavior of sheet metal subjected to multiple bending-unbending cycles. The investigations were carried out in both the rolling and the transverse rolling directions on four types of materials: Electro-Galvanized DQ steel, light and heavy gauge Hot-Dip Galvanealed High Strength Steels, and Aluminum alloy AL6111. The sheet geometries, thickness strains, pulling forces and clamping forces were measured and analyzed for the purpose of establishing a benchmark database for numerical predictions of springback. The results indicate that the springback curvature changes dramatically with the die holding force. The conditions at which the springback is minimized was observed and found to depend on the material properties and the sheet thickness. Analysis with an implicit FEM showed that the predicted and the experimental results are in very good agreement.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Draw Bead Coefficient of Friction Using Surface Temperature

2002-03-04
2002-01-1059
Sheet metal stamping involves a system of complex tribological (friction, lubrication, and wear), heat transfer, and material strain interactions. Accurate coefficient of friction, strain, and lubrication regime data is required to allow proper modeling of the various sheet stamping processes. In addition, non-intrusive means of monitoring the coefficient of friction in production stamping operations would be of assistance for efficiently maintaining proper stamping quality and to indicate when adjustments to the various stamping parameters, including maintenance, would be advantageous. One of the key sub-systems of the sheet metal stamping process is the draw bead. This paper presents an investigation of the tribology of the draw bead using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) Machine and automotive zinc-coated sheet steels. The investigation and findings include: 1) A new, non-intrusive method of measuring the surface temperature of the sheet steel as it passes through the draw bead.
Technical Paper

Managing Regulatory Content

2001-03-05
2001-01-1084
Managing regulatory content is a complex process for any industry, but particularly for the automotive industry, which is heavily regulated. Several approaches for managing content are discussed along with implications for the industry. The response of an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to the recent European Parliament End-of-Life Vehicle Directive (EU 2000/53/EC-ELVs)1 is discussed from a North American perspective as well as trickle down expectations for the automotive supply base. Design, sourcing and labeling issues associated with the ELV directive as well as domestic regulations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Design Kit for Accessory Drives (DKAD): Dynamic Analysis of Serpentine Belt Drives

2003-05-05
2003-01-1661
DKAD is an automated analysis tool for evaluating dynamic characteristics of accessory drives. Rotation response analysis predicts natural frequencies and effects of crankshaft excitation. Lateral response of each belt span shows the effect of pulley run-out and parametric excitation. DKAD systematically allows a user to define a design and its operating conditions and then performs a sequence of analysis to visualize the rotational and lateral responses. It also allows a user to quickly explore and assess alternative designs. Belt layout and associated parameters can be saved in templates for future reference.
Technical Paper

Criteria to Determine the Necessity of Data Acquisition for RTS Drive File Development due to Vehicle Parameter Changes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0858
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is required to be assessed at every design and development stage. Due to limitations of the analytical and experimental tools, the current practice in the automotive industry is to conduct a new data acquisition over a proving ground schedule whenever there are changes in the suspension parameters. This is a time-consuming and expensive operation. This paper provides guidelines for product teams to determine if a new vehicle data acquisition is needed when there are changes in vehicle parameters, and the corresponding effect on Road Test Simulator (RTS) drive file development. The application of this methodology to a truck with and without tuned suspension parameters is described in detail.
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