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Technical Paper

Vehicle Road Simulation Testing, Correlation and Variability

2005-04-11
2005-01-0856
In this paper, responses from a vehicle's suspension, chassis and body, are used to demonstrate a methodology to optimize physical test results. It is well known that there is a variability effect due to an increase of wheel unsprung mass (due to loads measurement fixturing), tire pressure, speed, etc. This paper quantifies loading variability due to Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) unsprung mass by using a rainflow cycle counting domain. Also, presents a proving ground-to-test correlation study and the data reduction techniques that are used in road simulation test development to identify the most nominal road load measurement. Fundamental technical information and analytical methodology useful in overall vehicle durability testing are discussed. Durability testing in a laboratory is designed to correlate fatigue damage rig to road. A Proving Ground (PG) loading history is often acquired by running an instrumented vehicle over one or more PG events with various drivers.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Powertrain Loading Simulation and Variability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1563
In this paper, loads acting on driveline components during an entire proving ground (PG) durability schedule are used to demonstrate the methodology of optimizing driveline performance reliability using both physical and computational methods. It is well known that there is an effect of driver variability on the driveline component loads. Yet, this effect has not been quantified in the past for lack of experimental data from multiple drivers and reliable data analysis methods. This paper presents the data reduction techniques that are used to identify the extreme driver performance and to extrapolate the short-term measurement to long-term data for driveline performance reliability. The driveline loading variability is made evident in the rotating moment histogram domain. This paper also introduces the concept for a simulation model to predict the driveline component loads based on a complete proving grounds schedule. A model-to-test correlation is also performed in this paper.
Technical Paper

The Mechanical Properties of Wheel Force Sensors and Their Impact on to the Data Collected - A Detailed Consideration of Specific Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0734
Based on the results of “An Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Wheel Force Sensors and their Impact on to the Data Collected During Different Driving Manoeuvres” Herrmann et al. (SAE Paper 05M-254) a second, detailed investigation has been started to acquire additional information. In this previous investigation, it has been found out, that a difference in mass can be clearly identified in the signals. The current paper summarizes the results of a detailed investigation, which has been performed at DaimlerChrysler Stress Lab in Auburn Hills, with a fully equipped vehicle - a set of 2/4 Wheel Force Sensors plus several acceleration sensors as well. Through careful research and testing it is expected that the differences in the dynamic behavior can be specified with better accuracy than in the previous study.
Technical Paper

The Effect of HIP Processing on the Properties of A356 T6 Cast Aluminum Steering Knuckles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1027
Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) has been routinely used to densify castings for aerospace and medical applications for over 30 years. While HIP is widely known to improve the toughness and fatigue life of castings through the healing of internal porosity, it has been perceived as too expensive for most cast aluminum alloys for automotive applications. Recent developments suggest that the cost effectiveness of certain special HIP processes should be revisited due to reductions in process cost and improvements in throughput. This paper will evaluate the Densal® II process applied to a front aluminum steering knuckle. Two casting processes representing differing levels of relative cost and quality were evaluated. The first was Alcoa's VRC/PRC process, a metal mold process with bottom fill, evacuation before fill and pressurization after fill. This is considered to be a premium quality, but higher cost casting process that is already qualified for this application.
Technical Paper

Stamping and Crush Performance of Dual Phase Steel

2001-10-16
2001-01-3074
Traditionally, high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel is used for automotive vehicle weight reduction in the North American automotive industry. Dual phase (DP) high strength steel has gained great attention because it provides a combination of high strength and good formability. The main advantage of DP steel is the high ratio of tensile strength to yield strength, which provides more flexibility in stamping and higher energy absorption in a component crush event. This study compares the performances of DP and HSLA steel grades in stamping processes and component crush events, as shown in a typical automotive unibody inner rail. Simulation results show that DP steel offers more uniform strain distribution, improved formability, and better crush performance than conventional HSLA steel.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Fatigue Strength Testing by the Staircase Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-1288
The staircase fatigue testing method is a recognized method for determining the fatigue limit of powertrain components. The purpose of this paper is to improve upon existing standards by adding common practices that will ensure a higher degree of statistical accuracy in the data. This includes specifying appropriate sample sizes, stress increments and initial load conditions, as well as making suggestions for appropriate methods of analyzing the data. Two methods (Dixon and Mood method and probit analysis method) are selected and compared in terms of relative percent difference on four parameters (mean, standard deviation, B10 fatigue strength and B50 fatigue strength). The staircase data are obtained by simulations from normal and lognormal fatigue limit distributions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Draw Bead Coefficient of Friction Using Surface Temperature

2002-03-04
2002-01-1059
Sheet metal stamping involves a system of complex tribological (friction, lubrication, and wear), heat transfer, and material strain interactions. Accurate coefficient of friction, strain, and lubrication regime data is required to allow proper modeling of the various sheet stamping processes. In addition, non-intrusive means of monitoring the coefficient of friction in production stamping operations would be of assistance for efficiently maintaining proper stamping quality and to indicate when adjustments to the various stamping parameters, including maintenance, would be advantageous. One of the key sub-systems of the sheet metal stamping process is the draw bead. This paper presents an investigation of the tribology of the draw bead using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) Machine and automotive zinc-coated sheet steels. The investigation and findings include: 1) A new, non-intrusive method of measuring the surface temperature of the sheet steel as it passes through the draw bead.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Vehicle Box Component Durability Test Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1690
During the initial vehicle design phase and as the first prototypes are built, extensive on-board instrumentation and data acquisition is required at the proving grounds (PG). The data is used for various types of testing and analysis. During this phase of development very few parts and assembly components are available for physical test. The objective is to develop a component test for the truck box. This test can be run without suspension parts during the early stages of the vehicle development. A further objective is to correlate the test to FEA models and actual Proving Ground full vehicle test results.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis for Axle Differential Cases

2006-04-03
2006-01-0779
The recent trends of increasing driveline torque and use of traction control devices call for increasingly higher durability capacity from driveline components. Bench and vehicle durability tests are often used to validate designs, but they are not cost-effective and take months to complete. Traditional finite element analysis (FEA) procedures have been used effectively in the re-design of driveline components to reduce stress, and occasionally, to predict fatigue life. But in the case of certain rotating components, such as the Axle Differential Case, where the component sees large stress/strain fluctuations within the course of one complete rotation, even under constant input torque, historical fatigue analysis (when conducted) yields very conservative results. The axle differential case tends to be one of the weakest links in the rear axle assembly. Therefore, there is a crucial need for analytical methods to more accurately predict fatigue life to reduce testing time and cost.
Technical Paper

Effect of Forming Strain on Fatigue Performance of a Mild Automotive Steel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0083
The effect of forming strains on the fatigue behavior of an automotive mild steel, interstitial free steel, was studied after being prestrained by balanced biaxial stretch and plane strain. In the long life region, higher than 5×105 reversals, prestrain improves fatigue resistance. In the short life region, prestrain reduces fatigue resistance. At even shorter fatigue lives, the detrimental effect of prestrain diminishes. For plane strains, the fatigue behavior is anisotropic. In the direction perpendicular to the major strain, the steel exhibits much better fatigue resistance than in the direction parallel to the major strain.
Technical Paper

Criteria to Determine the Necessity of Data Acquisition for RTS Drive File Development due to Vehicle Parameter Changes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0858
Durability of automotive structures is a primary engineering consideration that is required to be assessed at every design and development stage. Due to limitations of the analytical and experimental tools, the current practice in the automotive industry is to conduct a new data acquisition over a proving ground schedule whenever there are changes in the suspension parameters. This is a time-consuming and expensive operation. This paper provides guidelines for product teams to determine if a new vehicle data acquisition is needed when there are changes in vehicle parameters, and the corresponding effect on Road Test Simulator (RTS) drive file development. The application of this methodology to a truck with and without tuned suspension parameters is described in detail.
Technical Paper

Concepts Designed to Enhance the CustomerS Driving Experience

2000-11-01
2000-01-C031
Throughout its history, the automobile has served the utilitarian purpose of transportation quite well. However, until recently, vehicle occupants have had little else to do while proceeding from point "A'' to point "B.'' The phenomenal improvements in computing and communication technologies promise to evolve the driving experience. Like never before, new opportunities to make driving more efficient and engaging are becoming available. The challenge will be to develop the right combination of technology, safety, design and user interface that creates a product popular with customers.
Technical Paper

Coastdown/Wind Tunnel Drag Correlation and Uncertainty Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-0630
This paper describes a program of coastdown and wind tunnel tests conducted with the objective of establishing a correlation between the aerodynamic drag force measured at the Lockheed-Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) and that inferred from coastdown results on the test track. The result of this correlation establishes, in principle, the capability to project what the aerodynamic drag force inferred by a future coastdown test will be (for a future, as-yet unavailable property) based on a current database of wind tunnel results. The correlation is accompanied by a rigorous uncertainty analysis to assess the quality of the correlation and its supporting data.
Technical Paper

Advances in Thixomolding Magnesium Alloys Part II

2003-03-03
2003-01-0181
Thixomolding (1) is a relatively new process in which the metallic slurry is injected into a die cavity tool at semi-solid or liquid temperatures to form near net-shape products from the solid feedstock. As part of on-going research into Thixomolding technology, this study continues the work of a previous study, that concentrated on magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM60B. The test samples were made with high, low and zero percent fraction solid. The test results of the thixomolded samples of the various percent fraction solid are compared to conventional high pressure die casting samples and there is a discussion of the why the Thixomolding process produces superior properties. In addition, a comprehensive corrosion resistance study was completed utilizing uncoated corrosion plates in an salt spray environment (ASTM B117).
Technical Paper

Achieving Acceptable Cp and Cpk Values in Sheetmetal Stampings

1999-09-28
1999-01-3193
Detail parts are approved during several different phases of the prototype build cycle. There is much pressure at all stages to meet strategic body quality targets. Parts stamped for assembly must meet a process capability requirement of Cpk>1.33. For final PSO (process sign off), as called out in the PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) manual, the requirement can be increased to meeting a Cpk>1.67. During the 2000 Neon part approval process, the PPAP requirements provided the guideline necessary for consistent buy-offs. However, on some critical parts the Cpk requirement made part approvals difficult to accomplish. Occasionally this caused resources to be focused in the wrong place. This paper will discuss how a requirement of Cpk>1.33 can make part approvals more difficult to achieve and change the entire application of a tolerance.
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