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Technical Paper

Vehicle System Energy Analysis Methodology and Tool for Determining Vehicle Subsystem Energy Supply and Demand

A greater understanding of where fuel energy is being demanded from a vehicle system standpoint is necessary for developing more fuel efficient vehicles. This paper presents an overview of the development and application of a vehicle energy analysis methodology and a MATLAB®/Simulink® based tool that uses empirical data and first principles to identify vehicle subsystem energy supply and demand. An accurate analysis requires the tool to be populated with chassis dynamometer drive cycle data as well as vehicle and component information. The tool can be used to investigate vehicle system energy requirements, prevailing fuel economy factors, and incremental hypothetical fuel saving scenarios that could not otherwise be measured due to inherent test-to-test variability.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Road Simulation Testing, Correlation and Variability

In this paper, responses from a vehicle's suspension, chassis and body, are used to demonstrate a methodology to optimize physical test results. It is well known that there is a variability effect due to an increase of wheel unsprung mass (due to loads measurement fixturing), tire pressure, speed, etc. This paper quantifies loading variability due to Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) unsprung mass by using a rainflow cycle counting domain. Also, presents a proving ground-to-test correlation study and the data reduction techniques that are used in road simulation test development to identify the most nominal road load measurement. Fundamental technical information and analytical methodology useful in overall vehicle durability testing are discussed. Durability testing in a laboratory is designed to correlate fatigue damage rig to road. A Proving Ground (PG) loading history is often acquired by running an instrumented vehicle over one or more PG events with various drivers.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Powertrain Loading Simulation and Variability

In this paper, loads acting on driveline components during an entire proving ground (PG) durability schedule are used to demonstrate the methodology of optimizing driveline performance reliability using both physical and computational methods. It is well known that there is an effect of driver variability on the driveline component loads. Yet, this effect has not been quantified in the past for lack of experimental data from multiple drivers and reliable data analysis methods. This paper presents the data reduction techniques that are used to identify the extreme driver performance and to extrapolate the short-term measurement to long-term data for driveline performance reliability. The driveline loading variability is made evident in the rotating moment histogram domain. This paper also introduces the concept for a simulation model to predict the driveline component loads based on a complete proving grounds schedule. A model-to-test correlation is also performed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter CFD Engineering Part II: Performance Improvement through Core Leakage Flow and Cavitation Control

The performance of a large-volume production torque converter is slightly different from those of development prototype due to the core leakage flow. The sealing gap between the stator crown and pump or turbine core of the production converter is usually larger than that of prototypes because of fabrication method and tolerances. In this work, the core leakage flow of torque converter was investigated using CFD. The core region was modeled and coupled together with other three major components of a converter. Studies show that for a particular converter the core leakage flow could result in a 3.6% stall torque ratio reduction and a 2% peak efficiency decrease. The effects of sealing gap dimensions were also studied. Computational investigations in this work indicated that the variation of input K factor with input torque level observed in dyno tests is due to the cavitation in the torque converter.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter CFD Engineering Part I: Torque Ratio and K Factor Improvement Through Stator Modifications

To improve vehicle launch feeling, the powertrain torque output needs to be largely increased. Compared with modifications to engine, transmission, and axle, one of the most inexpensive ways of achieving this goal is to modify the torque converter to get a higher stall torque ratio. In other applications, in order to lower engine speed for better fuel economy, and to match with a higher output engine, a converter with higher torque capacity (lower K factor) is also often desired. In some case of small-volume production, the torque converter modifications are limited to the stator only in order to reduce the manufacturing cost. In the present study, the engineering CFD simulations were used to develop new stators for stall torque ratio and K factor improvement. The flow fields of both baseline and modified torque converters were simulated. The overall performances of the converter were calculated from the flow field data, and correlated with the dyno test data.
Technical Paper

The Effect of HIP Processing on the Properties of A356 T6 Cast Aluminum Steering Knuckles

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) has been routinely used to densify castings for aerospace and medical applications for over 30 years. While HIP is widely known to improve the toughness and fatigue life of castings through the healing of internal porosity, it has been perceived as too expensive for most cast aluminum alloys for automotive applications. Recent developments suggest that the cost effectiveness of certain special HIP processes should be revisited due to reductions in process cost and improvements in throughput. This paper will evaluate the Densal® II process applied to a front aluminum steering knuckle. Two casting processes representing differing levels of relative cost and quality were evaluated. The first was Alcoa's VRC/PRC process, a metal mold process with bottom fill, evacuation before fill and pressurization after fill. This is considered to be a premium quality, but higher cost casting process that is already qualified for this application.
Technical Paper

Subjective Evaluation of NVH CAE Model Predictions Using an Operator-in-the-Loop Driving Simulator

In the past several years there has been a significant effort to increase the reliance on CAE technology to guide the vehicle design process, with the accompanying effort to reduce or eliminate vehicle prototype testing during the early design phase. Since little or no representative hardware is available early in the design, a tool is needed which allows NVH Development Engineers to subjectively experience the results of NVH CAE model predictions in a realistic driving environment. This paper documents the development of a high fidelity NVH simulator, including both audio and vibration, and the integration of this simulator into an “operator-in-the-loop” Driving Simulator. The key development of this system is its ability to incorporate NVH CAE predictions into the simulated driving environment.
Technical Paper

Stamping and Crush Performance of Dual Phase Steel

Traditionally, high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel is used for automotive vehicle weight reduction in the North American automotive industry. Dual phase (DP) high strength steel has gained great attention because it provides a combination of high strength and good formability. The main advantage of DP steel is the high ratio of tensile strength to yield strength, which provides more flexibility in stamping and higher energy absorption in a component crush event. This study compares the performances of DP and HSLA steel grades in stamping processes and component crush events, as shown in a typical automotive unibody inner rail. Simulation results show that DP steel offers more uniform strain distribution, improved formability, and better crush performance than conventional HSLA steel.
Technical Paper

Springback of Sheet Metal Subjected to Multiple Bending-Unbending Cycles

A Draw Bead Simulator (DBS), with modified draw beads, was employed in this study to understand the springback behavior of sheet metal subjected to multiple bending-unbending cycles. The investigations were carried out in both the rolling and the transverse rolling directions on four types of materials: Electro-Galvanized DQ steel, light and heavy gauge Hot-Dip Galvanealed High Strength Steels, and Aluminum alloy AL6111. The sheet geometries, thickness strains, pulling forces and clamping forces were measured and analyzed for the purpose of establishing a benchmark database for numerical predictions of springback. The results indicate that the springback curvature changes dramatically with the die holding force. The conditions at which the springback is minimized was observed and found to depend on the material properties and the sheet thickness. Analysis with an implicit FEM showed that the predicted and the experimental results are in very good agreement.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Die Gap Effect on Springback Behavior in Stamping Processes

The springback behavior might be different due to different gap clearances between die and punch. A study using FEA simulation is done to investigate the die gap effect. A 3D brick element and an explicit-implicit method are employed to investigate a few simple problems. A draw form, a crash form with an upper pad and a flange form are investigated separately. Numisheet’93 2D draw bending springback problem is also investigated using an explicit dynamic code. Comparisons between springback simulation results on several different die gaps are illustrated. The Kirchhoff assumption of C° shell element and the Mindlin/Love assumption of thin shell element are also examined on different cases. A case study then is performed on a rail type panel. Conclusions and recommendations for future studies are summarized.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Fatigue Strength Testing by the Staircase Method

The staircase fatigue testing method is a recognized method for determining the fatigue limit of powertrain components. The purpose of this paper is to improve upon existing standards by adding common practices that will ensure a higher degree of statistical accuracy in the data. This includes specifying appropriate sample sizes, stress increments and initial load conditions, as well as making suggestions for appropriate methods of analyzing the data. Two methods (Dixon and Mood method and probit analysis method) are selected and compared in terms of relative percent difference on four parameters (mean, standard deviation, B10 fatigue strength and B50 fatigue strength). The staircase data are obtained by simulations from normal and lognormal fatigue limit distributions.
Technical Paper

Pump Noise Reduction Using Shainin Statistical Engineering Methods

Historically, pump noise can be a contributor to customer dissatisfaction with automatic transmissions. In this paper, a Shainin experiment was conducted to identify all probable root causes for pump noise on a production RWD transmission. Sample transmissions were selected following subjective evaluations. Noise was objectively measured in the lab using a microphone and an accelerometer. The study was conducted following a systematic Shainin statistical engineering methodology, which included the following major steps: selection of the test measure using the isoplot technique, selection of Best of Best (BOB) and Worst of Worst (WOW) transmissions, assessment of assembly variation, component search, and pair-wise comparisons. The study successfully highlighted the key variables on the drive gear involute profile, which are now being tightly controlled for improved noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

Proactive Ergonomic Verification Through Human Biodynamic Modeling and Digital Simulation

An extensive digital simulation study on lift devices that interact with human operators in DaimlerChrysler automotive assembly plants has been initiated and deployed. This digital mock-up of human-machine workcells is to scientifically evaluate and further certify a number of typical commercial lift devices that are served in car-assembly operations. The entire model is based on human biomechanical Jacobian relationship, as a fundamental kinematic structure, to predict human body instantaneous joint-torque distribution when the human is working with a certain payload. The developed modeling and simulation system will play a pivotal role in proactive ergonomic prediction, verification and digital certification in car advance manufacturing engineering processes.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Draw Bead Coefficient of Friction Using Surface Temperature

Sheet metal stamping involves a system of complex tribological (friction, lubrication, and wear), heat transfer, and material strain interactions. Accurate coefficient of friction, strain, and lubrication regime data is required to allow proper modeling of the various sheet stamping processes. In addition, non-intrusive means of monitoring the coefficient of friction in production stamping operations would be of assistance for efficiently maintaining proper stamping quality and to indicate when adjustments to the various stamping parameters, including maintenance, would be advantageous. One of the key sub-systems of the sheet metal stamping process is the draw bead. This paper presents an investigation of the tribology of the draw bead using a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS) Machine and automotive zinc-coated sheet steels. The investigation and findings include: 1) A new, non-intrusive method of measuring the surface temperature of the sheet steel as it passes through the draw bead.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Accessory Drive System of the V6 Engine Using Computer Simulation and Dynamic Measurements

At the initial accessory drive system design stage, a model was created using commercial CAE software to predict the dynamic response of the pulleys, tensioner motion and pulley slip. In a typical 6 cylinder automotive accessory drive systems, the first system torsional mode is near the engine idle speed. The combination of these two events could generate numerous undesirable noise and vibration effects in the system. Data acquisition on a firing engine with a powertrain dynamometer confirmed the computer model's results. Correlations are then developed and established based on results between the firing engine to the CAE model to increase confidence in the generated model. Further system optimization through design modifications are used to tune the system to minimize the overall system dynamics.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Vehicle Box Component Durability Test Development

During the initial vehicle design phase and as the first prototypes are built, extensive on-board instrumentation and data acquisition is required at the proving grounds (PG). The data is used for various types of testing and analysis. During this phase of development very few parts and assembly components are available for physical test. The objective is to develop a component test for the truck box. This test can be run without suspension parts during the early stages of the vehicle development. A further objective is to correlate the test to FEA models and actual Proving Ground full vehicle test results.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis for Axle Differential Cases

The recent trends of increasing driveline torque and use of traction control devices call for increasingly higher durability capacity from driveline components. Bench and vehicle durability tests are often used to validate designs, but they are not cost-effective and take months to complete. Traditional finite element analysis (FEA) procedures have been used effectively in the re-design of driveline components to reduce stress, and occasionally, to predict fatigue life. But in the case of certain rotating components, such as the Axle Differential Case, where the component sees large stress/strain fluctuations within the course of one complete rotation, even under constant input torque, historical fatigue analysis (when conducted) yields very conservative results. The axle differential case tends to be one of the weakest links in the rear axle assembly. Therefore, there is a crucial need for analytical methods to more accurately predict fatigue life to reduce testing time and cost.
Technical Paper

Effect of Forming Strain on Fatigue Performance of a Mild Automotive Steel

The effect of forming strains on the fatigue behavior of an automotive mild steel, interstitial free steel, was studied after being prestrained by balanced biaxial stretch and plane strain. In the long life region, higher than 5×105 reversals, prestrain improves fatigue resistance. In the short life region, prestrain reduces fatigue resistance. At even shorter fatigue lives, the detrimental effect of prestrain diminishes. For plane strains, the fatigue behavior is anisotropic. In the direction perpendicular to the major strain, the steel exhibits much better fatigue resistance than in the direction parallel to the major strain.
Technical Paper

Data-Based Models for Spine Acceleration Response of the Side Impact Dummy

The response of the spine acceleration to rib and pelvis acceleration input of the side impact dummy (SID) is modeled using system identification methods. The basis for the modeling is a simplified representation of the SID by a 3-mass, 2-spring system. Based on this spring-mass representation, two types of response models are established. The first is a "gray-box" type with rib/pelvis-spine relationship modeled by Auto Regression with eXogeneous (or eXtra) input (ARX) type system models. The structure of these models is partially based on the spring-mass simplified representation, hence the notion "gray- box." The parameters of these models are identified through linear regression from test data. The second type of models is noted "physical model" here, since it is strictly a state- space form of the equation of motion of the simple spring-mass representation.
Technical Paper

Calculating Partial Contribution Using Component Sensitivity Values: A Different Approach to Transfer Path Analysis

Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a widely used methodology in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) analysis of motor vehicles. Either it is used to design a vehicle from scratch or it is applied to root cause an existing NVH problem, TPA can be a useful tool. TPA analysis is closely related to the concept of partial contribution. The very basic assumption in TPA is that the summation of all partial contributions from different paths constitutes the total response (which could be either tactile or acoustic). Another popular concept in NVH analysis of vehicles is the component sensitivity. Component sensitivity is a measure of how much the response changes due to a change in one of the components of the system, i.e., the thickness of a panel or elastic rate of an engine mount. Sensitivity rates are more popular among CAE/Simulation community, simply because they are reasonably easy to calculate using mathematical models.