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Technical Paper

The Evaporation Characteristics of Cylinder Oil of Low-Speed 2-Stroke Marine Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0886
The combustion of cylinder lubricating oil (called as cylinder oil for short) is one of the major sources of PM emissions of low-speed 2-stroke marine diesel engines. For pre-mixed combustion low-speed 2-stroke marine gas engines, the auto-ignition of cylinder oil might result in knock or more hazard abnormal combustion - pre-ignition. Evaporation is a key sub-process of the auto-ignition process of cylinder oil droplets. The evaporation behavior has a profound impact on the auto-ignition and combustion processes of cylinder oil droplets, and a great influence on engine combustion performance and emission characteristics. This paper applied an oil suspending apparatus to investigate the evaporation behavior of cylinder oil droplets and base oil droplets. The effects of ambient temperatures on the evaporation process were measured and analyzed. The results indicate that the evaporation of cylinder oil includes heating, evaporating, pyrolysis, and polymerization.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Porous Medium (PM) Engine Using a Two-Zone Combustion Model

2008-06-23
2008-01-1516
Porous medium (PM) engine was a new type engine based on the technique of combustion in porous medium, which can realize homogeneous and stable combustion. In this paper, the combustion and working processes of a specific PM engine was simulated by a two-zone model considering the influences of the mass distribution, heat transfer from the cylinder wall, mass exchange between zones and the heat transfer in porous medium. Influences of operating parameters, e.g. intake temperature and pressure, compression ratio, the excess air ratio on the performance of the PM engine were discussed. It is found out that the porous medium, acting as a heat recuperator, can significantly enhance the evaporation of liquid fuel and preheat the mixture, which promotes the ignition and combustion in the cylinder; and that the initial PM temperature and the compression ratio are critical factors controlling the compression ignition of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Simulating Analysis of Methanol Combustion Process and Variations of Cycle to Cycle in Diesel Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1985
A zero-dimension combustion model suitable to multi-fuel combustion process has been developed and successfully used in the analysis of methanol combustion process The V2b function is calculated with the Powell Optimized Algorithm. The concerned characteristics include in the variables of zero-dimension model, mean indication pressure, maximum combustion pressure, ignition delay and the correlation coefficient between heat release rate and ignition delay. The heat release rate curves on different conditions are fitted and the statistic analyses of the cyclic variations are conducted.
Technical Paper

Researches of Double-Layer Diverging Combustion System (DLDCS) in a DI Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1833
The new DI diesel engine combustion system named Double-Layer Diverging Combustion System (DLDCS) results in a better Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and lower exhaust emissions. The previous results of numerical simulation and bench test of a single cylinder DI diesel engine showed that more homogeneous fuel distribution, better BSFC and lower emission level were obtained by employing this combustion system. In this research, further numerical simulation are employed to seek the best injection advance angle and investigate the influence of different volume fraction and type lines of upper layer with AVL Fire.
Technical Paper

Premix Film Type Compression Ignition Combustion

1992-02-01
920694
This paper investigates the difference between the traditional diffusion combustion and hot premix film type combustion on improvement of compression ignition engine performance in all respects. The first part of this paper mainly describes the heat release, air fuel mixing, swirl flow and squish flow and also film formation on diffusion combustion. The second part of this paper describes the development of hot premix combustion, its feasibility and guiding principles. The main purpose of this part is to demonstrate three main measures which should be taken in carrying out premix film formation combustion. The first means is air flow guide ring. The second is film formation process and the third is fine particles fuel injectors: one is supermultiple holes injector and the second is conical spray fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Numerical methods of improving computation efficiency on diesel spray and combustion using large eddy simulation in KIVA3V code

2014-04-01
2014-01-1149
Unlike RANS method, LES method needs more time and much more grids to accurately simulate the spray process. In KIVA, spray process was modeled by Lagrangain-drop and Eulerian-fluid method. The coarse grid can cause errors in predicting the droplet-gas relative velocity, so for reducing grid dependency due to the relative velocity effects, an improved spray model based on a gas-jet theory is used in this work and in order to validate the model seven different size grids were used. In this work, the local dense grid was used to reduce the computation cost and obtain accurate results that also were compared with entire dense grid. Another method to improve computation efficiency is the MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) differencing scheme that was implemented into KIVA3V-LES code to calculate the momentum convective term and reduce numerical errors.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Turbulent Two-Phase Flow in a Porous Media Combustion Chamber

2008-06-23
2008-01-1592
To understand the working mechanism of the porous medium (PM) internal combustion engine, effects of a porous medium heat regenerator inserted into a combustion chamber on the turbulent flow field and fuel-air mixture formation are studied by numerical simulation. The cylindrical chamber has a constant volume, in which a disk-shaped PM insert is fixed. A simplified model for the random structure of the PM is presented, in which the PM is represented by an assembly of a great number of randomly distributed solid units. To simulate flows in the PM a Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy's equation is introduced into the numerical solver. A version of two-equation k - ε turbulence model suggested by Antohe and Lage is employed for the turbulence prediction in the PM. A spray model, in which the effects of drop breakup, collision and coalescence are taken into account, is introduced to describe spray/wall interactions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Potential of Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) Coupled with Double Diesel Direct-Injection Strategy for Meeting High Fuel Efficiency with Ultra-Low Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine at High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-1166
The potential of diesel/gasoline RCCI combustion coupled with late intake valve closing (LIVC) and double direct injection of diesel for meeting high fuel efficiency with ultra-low emissions was investigated in this study. The study was aiming at high load operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the reactivity stratification of RCCI combustion, the employment of double injection of diesel fuel provided concentration stratification of the high-reactivity fuel, which is to further realize effective control of the combustion process. Meanwhile, late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy is introduced to control the maximum in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Liquid Fuel Spray and Combustion with Gradually Varying Grid

2013-10-14
2013-01-2634
In this work, large eddy simulation (LES) with a K-equation subgrid turbulent kinetic energy model is implemented into the CFD code KIVA3V to study the features of liquid fuel spray and combustion using gradually varying grid in a constant volume chamber. The characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) incorporating a turbulent timescale is adopted to predict the combustion process and the SHELL auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition. Combustion is also simulated using Parallel Detailed Chemistry with Lu's n-heptane reduced mechanism (58 species), which has been added into the KIVA3V-LES code. The computational results are compared with Sandia experimental data for non-reacting and reacting cases. As a result, LES can capture the complex structure of the spray and temperature distribution as well as the trend of ignition delay and flame lift-off length variations. Better results are obtained using the Parallel Detailed Chemistry than the CTC model.
Technical Paper

Influences of subgrid turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dispersion on the characteristics of fuel spray

2011-08-30
2011-01-1839
A large eddy simulation approach and different breakup models are used to analyze fuel injection and atomization processes in a constant volume combustion bomb. The study is focused on the influences of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy, especially the source term induced by the fuel spray, on the droplet movement and spray characteristics. Furthermore, the influence of different subgrid scale (SGS) models, including the constant coefficient and dynamic Smagorinsky models, WALE model and the K-equation turbulent energy transport model, on fuel sprays and the turbulent dispersion of droplets are examined. Factors affecting the fuel spray are discussed based on numerical computations for various operating conditions and are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Characteristics of Conical Spray and Combustion for Medium Speed D.I. Diesel Engine

1993-03-01
930598
This paper inverstigates a new way of conical spray for medium speed D. I. diesel engine, with which three different construction injectors were used. The feature of conical spray and fuel-air mixture formation were observed by means of schlieren photograph technique. The main result is that the cone top angle of conical injector has influence on formation of fuel-air mixture and performance of engine. The results of test on a single-cylinder engine show the premixed combustion phase was possessed of a large proportions of the whole combustion period, which was become a leading feature. The increasing interest in study of diesel engine combustion is caused by achieving even more stringent emission standards and greatly improving the fuel economy. From present status of this research the traditional combustion system which with orifice nozzel has already exposed some inherent drawbacks.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction on Spray Combustion: A Large Eddy Simulation Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0203
Although turbulence plays a critical role in engines operated within low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, its interaction with chemistry on auto-ignition at low-ambient-temperature and lean-oxygen conditions remains inadequately understood. Therefore, it is worthwhile taking turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) into consideration in LTC engine simulation by employing advanced combustion models. In the present study, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with linear eddy model (LEM) is performed to simulate the ignition process in n-heptane spray under engine-relevant conditions, known as Spray H. With LES, more details about unsteady spray flame could be captured compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). With LEM approach, both scalar fluctuation and turbulent mixing on sub-grid level are captured, accounting for the TCI. A skeletal mechanism is adopted in this numerical simulation, including 41 species and 124 reactions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Acetone-Gasoline Blend Ratio on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0870
Due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, alternative fuels in internal combustion engines have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Ethanol is the most common alternative fuel used in spark ignition (SI) engines due to its advantages of biodegradability, positively impacting emissions reduction as well as octane number improvement. Meanwhile, acetone is well-known as one of the industrial waste solvents for synthetic fibers and most plastic materials. In comparison to ethanol, acetone has a number of more desirable properties for being a viable alternative fuel such as its higher energy density, heating value and volatility.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of Soot Emissions in Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion with Pilot Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0511
In this paper, a control-oriented soot model was developed for real-time soot prediction and combustion condition optimization in a gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Engine. PPC is a promising combustion concept that achieves high efficiency, low soot and NOx emissions simultaneously. However, soot emissions were found to be significantly increased with high EGR and pilot injection, therefore a predictive soot model is needed for PPC engine control. The sensitivity of soot emissions to injection events and late-cycle heat release was investigated on a multi-cylinder heavy duty gasoline PPC engine, which indicated main impact factors during soot formation and oxidation processes. The Hiroyasu empirical model was modified according to the sensitivity results, which indicated main influences during soot formation and oxidation processes. By introducing additional compensation factors, this model can be used to predict soot emissions under pilot injection.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of Syngas/Diesel RCCI Combustion at Low Load in Different Engine Size

2019-04-02
2019-01-0573
Syngas is considered to be a promising alternative fuel for the dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions. However, the optimal syngas compositions and fuel supply strategies in RCCI combustion are significantly affected by engine configurations, which have not been investigated yet. In this study, by integrating the KIVA-3V code and the non-dominated sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), the optimizations for a 0.477 L single-cylinder engine with shallow/wide piston bowl (Engine A) and a 1.325 L single-cylinder engine with conventional omega-type piston (Engine B) under the syngas/diesel RCCI combustion were performed. The optimized operating parameters include the fuel-supply strategies, syngas compositions, and intake conditions. The results indicate that the fuel-supply strategy is flexible in Engine A due to the shallow/wide piston bowl and the relatively small cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Exergy Destruction of Methanol and Gasoline in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0758
Multi-dimensional models coupled with a reduced chemical mechanism were used to investigate the effect of fuel on exergy destruction fraction and sources in a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine. The exergy destruction due to chemical reaction (Deschem) makes the largest contribution to the total exergy destruction. Different from the obvious low temperature heat release (LTHR) behavior in gasoline/diesel RCCI, methanol has a negative effect on the LTHR of diesel, so the exergy destruction accumulation from LTHR to high temperature heat release (HTHR) can be avoided in methanol/diesel RCCI, contributing to the reduction of Deschem. Moreover, the combustion temperature in methanol/diesel RCCI is higher compared to gasoline/diesel RCCI, which is also beneficial to the lower exergy destruction fraction. Therefore, the exergy destruction of methanol/diesel RCCI is lower than that of gasoline/diesel RCCI at the same combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (ABE) Blended with Diesel in a Compression-Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0884
Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol. As an additive for diesel, it has been shown to improve spray evaporation, improve fuel atomization, enhance air-fuel mixing, and enhance combustion as a whole. The typical compositions of ABE are in a volumetric ratio of 3:6:1 or 6:3:1. From previous studies done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of additional acetone in the blend caused advancement in the combustion phasing, but too much acetone content led to an increase in soot emission during combustion. The objective of this research was to investigate the combustion of these mixtures in a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine at different speeds and different loads to study component effects on the various engine conditions. The fuels tested in these experiments were D100, ABE(3:6:1)10, ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(6:3:1)10, and ABE(6:3:1)20.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of HCCI Diesel Combustion Operated with a Hollow Cone Spray

2003-05-19
2003-01-1823
This paper presents two factors for improving the performance and emissions characteristics in HCCI diesel combustion, one is reducing compression ratio and another is changing the injector position. In a previous study, it was shown that HCCI diesel combustion could be realized by utilizing a hollow-cone spray with normal injection pressure. However there remained two major problems of engine instability and increase in BSFC (decrease in brake thermal efficiency). By reducing the compression ratio from 18.8 to 16.8, the engine stability was much improved to the level of conventional diesel combustion and the increase in BSFC became almost half, which was mainly due to the change of combustion phasing. In addition to this, application of 5 mm inside position of the injector realized almost no penalty of BSFC at higher load condition.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine under Diesel-1-Butanol/CNG Dual Fuel Operation Mode

2016-04-05
2016-01-0788
In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
Technical Paper

A Study of Performance Development and Optimization of 6106 Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1725
Working process of diesel engine refers to airflow, turbocharger, fuel injection, combustion, heat transfer and chemical reaction powers etc. Hence, it influences power output, fuel consumption, combustion noise and emissions, moreover directly influences reliability and durability of diesel engine. The working process of 6106 diesel engine is simulated by large universal internal combustion engine working process numerical simulation software GT-Power in this paper, and the effects of compression ratio, fuel supply advance angle and valve timing system on performance of diesel engine are analyzed. When valve-timing system is studied, the influence of intake valve close timing, exhaust valve open timing and valve overlap angle on performance are analyzed. On different operating conditions, the different timing of intake close and exhaust open, valve overlap were computed and analyzed. Finally, at different engine conditions, various optimum results were obtained.
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