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Technical Paper

Virtual Testing: Fatigue Life (S-N Curves) Simulations for Commercial Vehicle Axle Components

Current trends in vehicle development, including both automotive and commercial vehicles, are characterized by short model life cycles, reduced development time, concurrent design and manufacturing development, reduced design changes, and reduced total cost. All of these are driven by customer demand of higher load capacity, reduced weight, extended durability and warranty requirement, better NVH performance and reduced cost. These trends have resulted in increased usage of computational simulation tools in design, manufacturing, and testing, i.e. virtual testing or virtual prototyping. This paper summarizes our work in virtual testing, i.e. fatigue life simulations using computational fracture mechanics for commercial vehicle axle gearing development. First, fatigue life simulation results by using computational fracture mechanics CRACKS software were verified by comparing with gear teeth bending fatigue test data and three point bending fatigue test data.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of High-Tonnage Hydroform Press

This paper discusses the virtual development process used to support design of a high-tonnage hydroform press. It also discusses the optimized design for structural integrity while achieving low target cost. Other considerations included optimization of setup issues such as press fabrication and assembly. Due to tightly constrained development time, a diverse range of CAE methodologies were used to refine and validate the design. Detailed linear and nonlinear finite element models were developed to provide the required accuracy in the critical regions of the press structure. From these detailed models simplified analytical tools were developed to calculate the key press parameters such as alternating stress and predicted fatigue life. Finite element models were validated with physical strain gage measurements from an array of strain gages installed on the production presses.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Empirical Models to Determine the Sound Absorption and Bulk Properties of Compressed Materials

Sound absorbing materials are commonly compressed when installed in passenger compartments or underhood applications altering the sound absorption performance of the material. However, most prior work has focused on uncompressed materials and only a few models based on poroelastic properties are available for compressed materials. Empirical models based on flow resistivity are commonly used to characterize the complex wavenumber and characteristic impedance of uncompressed sound absorbing materials from which the sound absorption can be determined. In this work, the sound absorption is measured for both uncompressed and compressed samples of fiber and foam, and the flow resistivity is curve fit using an appropriate empirical model. Following this, the flow resistivity of the material is determined as a function of the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Use of Finite Element Simulation for Modeling Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Based on Structural Mechanics Principles

Carbon nanomaterials such as vertically aligned carbon nanotubes arrays are emerging new materials that have demonstrated superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. The carbon nanomaterials have the huge potential for a wide range of vehicular applications, including lightweight and multifunctional composites, high-efficiency batteries and ultracapacitors, durable thermal coatings, etc. In order to design the carbon nanomaterials for various applications, it is very important to develop effective computational methods to model such materials and structures. The present work presents a structural mechanics approach to effectively model the mechanical behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The carbon nanotube may be viewed as a geometrical space frame structure with primary bonds between any two neighboring atoms and thus can be modeled using three-dimensional beam elements.
Technical Paper

Tradeoff Between Magnet Volume and Tuning Capacitor in a Free Piston Stirling Engine Power Generation System

This paper presents the criteria in selecting the size of the tuning capacitor, and the cost tradeoff between magnet volume and tuning capacitor in a free piston Stirling engine power generation system. The permissible range of capacitor size corresponding to different magnet volume, in order to prevent magnet demagnetization and stabilize the operation of the system, is determined. Within the permissible range suitable capacitor size may be selected to compensate the inductive load of the system to improve the overall power factor. If the capacitor size is not in the permissible range, there would exists a danger of losing magnet strength, or unstable operation of the engine that would destroy the engine due to unbounded amplitude of piston oscillations. The theory developed is then applied to a practical system, and the cost tradeoff between magnet volume and capacitor is studied.
Technical Paper

The Limitations of Fatigue Testing

Fatigue testing of components is used to validate new product designs as well as changes made to existing designs. On new designs it is common to initially test parts at the design stage (design verification or DV) and then again at the production stage (production verification or PV) to make sure the performance has not changed. On changes to existing designs typically the life of the new part (B) is compared to that of the old part (A). When comparing the fatigue life Weibull analysis is normally used to evaluate the data. The expectation is that the B10 or B50 life of the new part or PV parts should be equal to or better than that of the old parts or the DV parts. However, fatigue testing has a great deal of inherent variability in the resulting life. In this paper the variability of numerous carburized and induction hardened components is examined.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels on Thermoset Elastomers

The scope of this paper is to determine the affects that non-petroleum based fuels such as: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and soy methyl ester (SME) have on thermoset elastomers. The thermoset elastomers that have been evaluated are NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber), NBR/PVC (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber & Polyvinyl Chloride), Epichlorohydrin homo- (Homopolymer of Epichlorohydrin), co- (Copolymer of Epichlorohydrin), ter- (Terpolymer of Ecpichlorohydrin), and Di-, and ter FKM (Fluorinated Rubber). The different elastomers have been subjected to aging in neat fatty acid methyl esters, RME and SME, at a variety of durations and temperatures. The effects of this exposure on the properties of thermoset elastomers are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

The Current Development of Nanofluid Research

It has been shown that the addition of a small amount of nanoparticles into a fluid results in anomalous increase in the thermal conductivity of the mixture, and the resulting nanofluid may provide better overall thermal management and better lubrication in many applications, such as heat transfer fluids, engine oils, transmission fluids, gear oils, coolants and other similar fluids and lubricants. The potential benefits of this technology to the automotive and related industries would be more efficient engines, reduced size and weight of the cooling and propulsion systems, lowered operating temperature of the mechanical systems, and increased life of the engine and other mechanical systems. The new mechanisms for this phenomenon of anomalous thermal conductivity increase have been proposed. The heat transfer properties of a series of graphite nanofluids were presented, and the experimental results were compared with the conventional heat transfer theory for pure liquids.
Journal Article

Simulation of Enclosures Including Attached Duct Work

Partial enclosures are commonly utilized to reduce the radiated noise from equipment. Often, enclosure openings are fitted with silencers or louvers to further reduce the noise emitted. In the past, the boundary element method (BEM) has been applied to predict the insertion loss of the airborne path with good agreement with measurement. However, an alteration at the opening requires a new model and additional computational time. In this paper, a transfer function method is proposed to reduce the time required to assess the effect of modifications to an enclosure. The proposed method requires that the impedance at openings be known. Additionally, transfer functions relating the sound pressure at one opening to the volume velocity at other openings must be measured or determined using simulation. It is assumed that openings are much smaller than an acoustic wavelength. The sound power from each opening is determined from the specific acoustic impedance and sound pressure at the opening.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Sound-Absorbing Performance of Micro-Perforated Panels Using the Transfer Matrix Method

Micro-perforated panels have tiny pores which attenuate sound based on the Helmholtz resonance principle. That being the case, an appropriate cavity depth should be chosen to fully capitalize on the attenuation potential of the panel. Generally, the panel's sound absorbing performance can be predicted by Maa's theory given information about the panel and the cavity depth. However, in some cases, one cannot use the theory to predict the panel's performance precisely, especially when the micro-perforate has varying diameters and/or irregular hole shapes. In these cases, the sound-absorbing performance of the micro-perforate is different from that of a uniform pore diameter perforate. This paper presents an alternative method to predict the micro-perforated panel's performance precisely. As a first step, the transfer impedance of the micro-perforate should be measured.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Radiated Noise from Engine Components Using the BEM and the Rayleigh Integral

This paper examines the feasibility of using the boundary element method (BEM) and the Rayleigh integral to assess the sound radiation from engine components such as oil pans. Two oil pans, one cast aluminum and the other stamped steel, are used in the study. All numerical results are compared to running engine data obtained for each of these oil pans on a Cummins engine. Measured running-engine surface velocity data are used as input to the BEM calculations. The BEM models of the oil pains are baffled in various ways to determine the feasibility of analyzing the sound radiated from the oil pan in isolation of the engine. Two baffling conditions are considered: an infinite baffle in which the edge of the oil pan are attached to an infinite, flat surface; and a closed baffle in which the edge of the oil pan is sealed with a rigid structure. It is shown that either of these methods gives satisfactory results when compared to experiment.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Coating Sprayer Capable of Producing Controllable Paint Droplets

Lack of a precise control over paint droplets released from current coating sprayers has motivated this study to develop an atomizer capable of generating a uniform flow of mono-dispersed droplets. In the current study, a numerical investigation based on CFD incorporating volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model has been developed to capture the interface between air and paint phases for a typical atomizer equipped with piezoelectric actuator. Effects of inlet flow rate and actuator frequency on ejected droplets' characteristics, droplet diameter and their successive spacing are studied in detail. It will be shown that for a determined flow rate of paint, there is an optimum actuator frequency in which droplet size is minimum. Besides, there exists a direct relationship between the inlet paint velocity and obtained optimal actuator frequency.
Technical Paper

Monotonic Tension, Strain Controlled Fatigue and Fracture Toughness Properties of a Ductile Iron

The objective of this work is to test and develop monotonic tensile properties and strain controlled fatigue properties of a cast ductile iron. The test data and the related material constants will be used in conjunction with vehicle loading data to perform finite element stress-strain analysis and fatigue life prediction analysis to aid in the design of automotive components made from ductile iron. Currently, such material property data does not exist in the literature for this particular grade of ductile iron. Monotonic tension and fully reversed strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted by following ASTM E-8, ASTM E-606, and SAE J-1099 on samples machined from the cast ductile iron. Monotonic tensile properties were obtained, including Young's modulus, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, reduction in area, strength coefficient K, and strain hardening exponent n.
Technical Paper

Modified Locati Method in Fatigue Testing

Locati method is suitable in preliminary fatigue tests and production quality control. It is efficient since it uses just one test sample. The method requires that the slope of the S-N curve be known a priori, however. In this paper, a modified Locati method is presented that virtually eliminated this requirement. The method produces a point on the S-N plane that is independent of the slope of the S-N curve. The test design strategy to control the fatigue life of such a point is provided. The presented method has been successfully applied to preliminary fatigue tests of several welded components of ground vehicles.
Technical Paper

Microwave Plasma Carburization of Steel Alloys at Atmospheric Pressure

Microwave plasmas at atmospheric pressures can be utilized for carburization of steel alloys. Due to their high frequencies, microwaves ionize and dissociate molecules with great efficiency and provide carbon for carburization by dissociating hydrocarbons that are introduced in the plasma. Also, conventional carburization techniques are not very energy efficient, as much of the heat generated is not utilized for the heating of the parts. Microwave plasmas are highly energy efficient due to very high coupling of microwaves to the plasma and then transferring of heat to the parts. Since plasma surrounds the part uniformly, heating rates over the part surface are also uniform. Preliminary results are presented for carburization of steel alloy 8620H by atmospheric microwave plasma process using acetylene as the source gas. Possible effects of application of pulsed DC bias to the parts are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of Gear Steels and Other Perspective Light Weight Materials for Gear Applications

To improve fuel economy and possibly reduce product cost, light weight and high power density has been a development goal for commercial vehicle axle components. Light weight materials, such as aluminum alloys and polymer materials, as well as polymer matrix composite materials have been applied in various automotive components. However it is still a huge challenge to apply light weight materials in components which are subject to heavy load and thus have high stresses, such as gears for commercial vehicle axles or transmissions. To understand and illustrate this challenge, in this paper we will report and review the current state of art of carburized gear steels properties and performance.
Technical Paper

Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials Using the Two-Source Method

The two-source method was used to measure the bulk properties (complex characteristic impedance and complex wavenumber) of sound-absorbing materials, and results were compared to those obtained with the more commonly used two-cavity method. The results indicated that the two-source method is superior to the two-cavity method for materials having low absorption. Several applications using bulk properties are then presented. These include: (1) predicting the absorptive properties of an arbitrary thickness absorbing material or (2) layered material and (3) using bulk properties for a multi-domain boundary element analysis.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Sample Size on Fatigue Endurance Limit of a Carburized Steel

Prediction of fatigue performance of large structures and components is generally done through the use of a fatigue analysis software, FEA stress/strain analysis, load spectra, and materials properties generated from laboratory tests with small specimens. Prior experience and test data has shown that a specimen size effect exists, i.e. the fatigue strength or endurance limit of large members is lower than that of small specimens made of same material. Obviously, the size effect is an important issue in fatigue design of large components. However a precise experimental study of the size effect is very difficult for several reasons. It is difficult to prepare geometrically similar specimens with increased volume which have the same microstructures and residual stress distributions throughout the entire material volume to be tested. Fatigue testing of large samples can also be a problem due to the limitation of load capacity of the test systems available.
Technical Paper

Investigation of S-N Test Data Scatter of Carburized 4320 Steel

A series of bending fatigue tests were conducted and S-N data were obtained for two groups of 4320 steel samples: (1) carburized, quenched and tempered, (2) carburized, quenched, tempered and shot peened. Shot peening improved the fatigue life and endurance limit. The S-N data exhibited large scatter, especially for carburized samples and at the high cycle life regime. Sample characterization work was performed and scatter bands were established for residual stress distributions, in addition to fracture and fatigue properties for 4320 steel. Moreover, a fatigue life analysis was performed using fracture mechanics and strain life fatigue theories. Scatter in S-N curves was established computationally by using the lower bound and upper bound in materials properties, residual stress and IGO depth in the input data. The results for fatigue life analysis, using either computational fracture mechanics or strain life theory, agreed reasonably well with the test data.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Application of Contact Methodologies in Finite Element Analyses of Hydroform Tooling Systems

In this study, the finite element analysis of hydroform tooling system using three different surface-to-surface contact methodologies is evaluated, such as the traditional non-linear gap element methodology, the newer linear gap technology and the 3D non-linear surface contact algorithm. These methods are investigated with the help of case studies, from exercise model level to more complicated models of real parts. Key parameters like analysis results, computational time and ease of use for each method are discussed. Directions regarding adaptivity to local user’s software resources and implementation strategies are provided. The linear gap method is observed to be more effective as pre-processing and computing time with same accuracy results as the non-linear static method in the design stage of hydroform tools analysis with pure sliding.