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Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings For Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Applications

Thermal efficiencies of 54% have been demonstrated by single cylinder engine testing of advanced diesel engine concepts developed under Department of Energy funding. In order for these concept engines to be commercially viable, cost effective and durable systems for insulating the piston, head, ports and exhaust manifolds will be required. The application and development of new materials such as thick thermal barrier coating systems will be key to insulating these components. Development of test methods to rapidly evaluate the durability of coating systems without expensive engine testing is a major objective of current work. In addition, a novel, low cost method for producing thermal barrier coated pistons without final machining of the coating has been developed.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of Transient Response Prediction of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine to Turbine Map Extrapolation

Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Emissions and a Feasible Solution for Common Calibration

Fuel properties impact the engine-out emission directly. For some geographic regions where diesel engines can meet emission regulations without aftertreatment, the change of fuel properties will lead to final tailpipe emission variation. Aftertreatment systems such as Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet stringent regulations. These regulations include off-road Tier 4 Final emission regulations in the USA or the corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe. As an engine with an aftertreatment system, the change of fuel properties will also affect the system conversion efficiency and regeneration cycle. Previous research works focus on prediction of engine-out emission, and many are based on chemical reactions. Due to the complex mixing, pyrolysis and reaction process in heterogeneous combustion, it is not cost-effective to find a general model to predict emission shifting due to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Production Qualified Catalytic Converter

Catalytic converters have become a viable aftertreatment system for reducing emissions from on-highway diesel engines. This paper addresses the development and production qualification of a catalytic converter. The testing programs that were utilized to qualify the converter system for production included emissions performance, emissions durability, physical durability, and field test programs. This paper reports on the specific tests that were utilized for the emissions performance and emissions durability testing programs. An explanation on the development of an accelerated durability test program is also included. The physical durability section of the paper discusses the development and execution of laboratory bench tests to insure the catalytic converter/muffler maintains acceptable physical integrity.
Technical Paper

Solder Protection with Extended Life, Carboxylate-Based Coolants

Silicate-free, carboxylate based technology as typified by Texaco Extended Life Coolant (TELC) and Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC), both meeting Caterpillar's EC-1 Coolant Specification, offer excellent corrosion protection for commercial lead solders commonly used in the fabrication of copper/brass radiators and heater cores throughout the trucking industry. Results of laboratory testing using solders from commercial radiators manufacturers and extensive field coolant analysis compare extended life technology with the popular conventional coolant technologies. In the laboratory, the effect of coolant concentration on solder protection is explored using the glassware corrosion test, ASTM D-1384. At concentrations ranging from 33% up to 75% the carboxylate technology offers comparable to superior protection when compared to the popular heavy-duty conventional coolant containing silicates and phosphates.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Oxygenates screening for AdvancedPetroleum-Based Diesel Fuels: Part 2. The Effect of Oxygenate Blending Compounds on Exhaust Emissions

Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel has shown the potential for reducing particulate (PM) emissions in the exhaust. The objective of this study was to select the most promising oxygenate compounds as blending components in diesel fuel for advanced engine testing. A fuel matrix was designed to consider the effect of molecular structure and boiling point on the ability of oxygenates to reduce engine-out exhaust emissions from a modern diesel engine. Nine test fuels including a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low-aromatic hydrocracked base fuel and 8 oxygenate-base fuel blends were utilized. All oxygenated fuels were formulated to contain 7% wt. of oxygen. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. The base fuel was evaluated in four speed-load modes and oxygenated blends only in one mode. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Verification of Noise Radiation Characteristics of Diesel Engine Block

To assess the contribution of structure-borne noise from an engine, it is critical to characterize the dynamic and vibro-acoustic properties of the engine components and assembly. In this paper, a component level study of a three-cylinder diesel engine block is presented. Virtual analysis was done to predict the natural frequencies and mode shapes of an engine block in the first step. Then, these results were used to decide the optimum test locations and an experimental modal test was conducted on the engine block. The initial virtual model results for the natural frequencies and mode shapes were correlated with the results from test. Then, the virtual model was updated with the damping derived from experimental modal test to match the vibration frequency response functions. Further, the virtual model was used for prediction of vibro-acoustic transfer functions. The vibro-acoustic transfer functions were also obtained from test.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Diesel Engine Cylinder Head Gasket Joints

A nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element analysis of the cylinder head gasket joint has been developed to allow accurate prediction of global and local joint behavior during engine operation. Nonlinear material properties and load cases that simulate full cycle engine operation are the analysis foundation. The three-dimensional, nonlinear, full-cycle simulation accurately predicts cylinder head gasket joint response to assembly, thermal, and cylinder pressure loading. Predictions correlate well with measured engine test data. Analysis results include local pressure distribution and global load splits. Insight into joint loading and an improved understanding of overall joint behavior provide the basis for informed design and development decisions.
Technical Paper

NOx Performance Degradation of Aftertreatment Architectures Containing DOC with SCR on Filter or Uncatalyzed DPF Downstream of DEF Injection

SCR on filter, also known as SCRoF, SCRF, SDPF, has been utilized to meet the stringent light duty Euro 6 emission regulations. Close-coupled DOC-DEF-SCR on filter with underfloor SCR architectures, offer a balance of NOx performance at cold start and highway driving conditions. In contrast, the DOC-DPF-DEF-SCR architecture has been most commonly selected to meet the on-road and non-road heavy duty emission regulations worldwide. Diesel engines applied to off road vehicles can operate under higher loads for extended times, producing higher exhaust temperatures and engine out NOx emissions. New European Stage V emission regulations will mandate diesel particulate filter (DPF) adoption because of particulate number and more stringent particulate mass requirements. Three aftertreatment architecture choices with diesel particulate filters (DPF) were evaluated as candidates to fulfill the Stage V emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Regression and Generalized Linear Model Optimization in Diesel Transient Performance Calibration

With stringent emission regulations, aftertreatment systems with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet PM and NOx emissions. The adoption of aftertreatment increases the back pressure on a typical diesel engine and makes engine calibration a complicated process, requiring thousands of steady state testing points to optimize engine performance. When configuring an engine to meet Tier IV final emission regulations in the USA or corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe, this high back pressure dramatically impacts transient performance. The peak NOx, smoke and exhaust temperature during a diesel engine transient cycle, such as the Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), will in turn affect the performance of the aftertreatment system and the tailpipe emissions level.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Modeling Techniques to Support Fuel Path Control in Medium Duty Diesel Engines

In modern production diesel engine control systems, fuel path control is still largely conducted through a system of tables that set mode, timing and injection quantity and with common rail systems, rail pressure. In the hands of an experienced team, such systems have proved so far able to meet emissions standards, but they lack the analytical underpinning that lead to systematic solutions. In high degree of freedom systems typified by modern fuel injection, there is substantial scope to deploy optimising closed loop strategies during calibration and potentially in the delivered product. In an optimising controller, a digital algorithm will explicitly trade-off conflicting objectives and follow trajectories during transients that continue to meet a defined set of criteria. Such an optimising controller must be based on a model of the system behaviour which is used in real time to investigate the consequences of proposed control actions.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Perform Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling for a Piston on a Sector Geometry for Direct-Injection Internal Combustion Engine Applications

The increase in computational power in recent times has led to multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling tools being used extensively for optimizing the diesel engine piston design. However, it is still common practice in engine CFD modeling to use constant uniform boundary temperatures. This is either due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring the component temperatures or the lack of measurements when simulation is being used predictively. This assumption introduces uncertainty in heat flux predictions. Conjugate heat transfer (CHT) modeling is an approach used to predict the component temperatures by simultaneously modeling the heat transfer in the fluid and the solid phase. However, CHT simulations are computationally expensive as they require more than one engine cycle to be simulated to converge to a steady cycle-averaged component temperature.
Technical Paper

Meeting the Customer's Needs - Defining the Next Generation Electronically Controlled Unit Injector Concept for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Diesel engine manufacturers have been asking for new, innovative, flexible fuel injection systems in order to meet future diesel engine emission requirements throughout the world and improve engine performance. Engineers at Caterpillar have listened to these requests and developed a fuel system concept to meet their needs. This new fuel system is called the Next Generation Electronic Unit Injector (NGEUI). The new concept is adaptable to mechanically actuated electronic unit injector, hydraulic electronic unit injector, electronic unit pump, and pump/line/nozzle systems. Features of the new fuel system are listed below: 1. Fully controllable injection pressure independent of engine speed and load 2. Injection pressure capability to 207 MPa (30,000 psi) 3. Reduced drive train torsional excitation and improved hydraulic efficiency 4.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Technical Paper

HEUI - A New Direction for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

Caterpillar Inc. has developed a new diesel engine fuel system, powered by hydraulics and controlled electronically. This Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector, (HEUI), requires no mechanical actuating or mechanical control devices, and offers many advantages over conventional fuel injection systems. Inherent features of the HEUI Fuel System include injection pressure control independent of engine load or speed, totally flexible injection timing, and full electronic control of injection parameters. Packaging the HEUI Fuel System on an engine is simple, as the injector is compact and available in a variety of configurations. The hydraulic actuating circuit is straightforward, using lubricating oil from the engine sump. Hydraulic lines may be internal to the engine or external. This paper describes the Caterpillar HEUI Fuel System, its operating features, performance advantages, and application to diesel engines.