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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Role of Dynamic Stiffness in Effective Isolation

In any machinery, avoiding noise and vibration completely is a difficult task due to the structural dynamic behaviors of components. To safeguard the operator, it is important to best isolate the operator station from NVH environment. Cabin isolation is an important aspect to minimize structure borne noise and tactile vibrations to be transferred into the cabin. Isolators are selected based on the isolation system inertial properties at mounting locations in the operating frequency range interested. The most important assumption to select isolators are that the active side and passive side of the isolators are nearly rigid so impedance mismatch is created for effective isolation. This paper describes the importance of dynamic stiffness of the structures on both the active and passive side for better NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Obtaining Structure-Borne Input Power for a SEA Model of an Earthmoving Machine Cab

Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Verification of Noise Radiation Characteristics of Diesel Engine Block

To assess the contribution of structure-borne noise from an engine, it is critical to characterize the dynamic and vibro-acoustic properties of the engine components and assembly. In this paper, a component level study of a three-cylinder diesel engine block is presented. Virtual analysis was done to predict the natural frequencies and mode shapes of an engine block in the first step. Then, these results were used to decide the optimum test locations and an experimental modal test was conducted on the engine block. The initial virtual model results for the natural frequencies and mode shapes were correlated with the results from test. Then, the virtual model was updated with the damping derived from experimental modal test to match the vibration frequency response functions. Further, the virtual model was used for prediction of vibro-acoustic transfer functions. The vibro-acoustic transfer functions were also obtained from test.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Prediction and Validation for Off-Highway Vehicle Cab Using Hybrid FE-SEA Methodology

Operator noise is an important aspect for noise and vibration of off-highway vehicles and a quieter cab is critical for the operator comfort. The noise level inside the cab is influenced by structural and acoustic transfer paths. In this paper, we used hybrid FE-SEA approach to consider both structural and acoustic transfer path as FEM and SEA methods individually face limitations in high and low frequencies respectively. A hybrid FE-SEA cab model was built to predict the structural and acoustic transfer functions. The analysis model was built with the systematic approach validated at each step with the laboratory test results. For the structural transfer function, structural excitations were applied at four cab mount locations and accelerations at various locations on the cab were validated. For the acoustic transfer function, the cab was excited with the volume velocity source inside the cab and sound power output of various panels were calculated and compared to the test results.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Booming Noise on a Motor Grader

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.