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Technical Paper

Using Advanced Emission Control Systems to Demonstrate LEV II ULEV on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

A program to demonstrate the performance of advanced emission control systems in light of the California LEV II light-duty vehicle standards and the EPA's consideration of Tier II emission standards was conducted. Two passenger cars and one light-duty pick-up truck were selected for testing, modification, and emission system performance tuning. All vehicles were 1997 Federal Tier I compliant. The advanced emission control technologies evaluated in this program included advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density substrates, and advanced thermally insulated exhaust components. Using these engine-aged advanced emission control technologies and modified stock engine control strategies (control modifications were made using an ERIC computer intercept/control system), each of the three test vehicles demonstrated FTP emission levels below the proposed California LEV II 193,000 km (120,000 mile) ULEV levels.
Technical Paper

Use of Butane as an Alternative Fuel-Emissions from a Conversion Vehicle Using Various Blends

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the regulated emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for eight butane and propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty vehicle, emission certified to be a California transitional low emission vehicle (TLEV) and converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate EPA FTP emission tests were conducted with each fuel. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel. Results showed that all eight fuels could allow the converted vehicle to pass California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) NMOG and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) standards. Six of the eight fuels could allow the vehicle to pass ULEV carbon monoxide (CO) standards. BUTANE has been an important gasoline blending component for many years.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

Reduced Energy and Power Consumption for Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Converters

Improved designs of extruded metal electrically heated catalysts (EHC) in combination with a traditional converter achieved the California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standard utilizing 50% less electrical energy than previous prototypes. This energy reduction is largely achieved by reducing the mass of the EHC. In addition to energy reduction, the battery voltage is reduced from 24 volts to 12 volts, and the power is reduced from 12 kilowatts to 3 kilowatts. Also discussed is the impact EHC mass, EHC catalytic activity, and no EHC preheating has on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions, energy requirements, and power requirements.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Operating on Gasoline, Diesel, and Alternative Fuels

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for various heavy-duty engines operating on “industry average” (RF-A) gasoline, California Phase 2 gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel fuel. Each engine/fuel combination was tested in triplicate using the EPA heavy-duty transient cold- and hot-start test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was conducted for all tests to allow for the determination of ozone-forming potentials, using California Air Resources Board maximum incremental reactivity factors as well as determination of the Clean Air Act “toxic” emissions.
Journal Article

Particle Emissions from a 2009 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using Different Commercially Available Fuels

Total and solid particle mass, size, and number were measured in the dilute exhaust of a 2009 vehicle equipped with a gasoline direct injection engine along with an exhaust three-way-catalyst. The measurements were performed over the FTP-75 and the US06 drive cycles using three different U.S. commercially available fuels, Fuels A, B, and C, where Fuel B was the most volatile and Fuel C was the least volatile with higher fractions of low vapor pressure hydrocarbons (C10 to C12), compared to the other two fuels. Substantial differences in particle mass and number emission levels were observed among the different fuels tested. The more volatile gasoline fuel, Fuel B, resulted in the lowest total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle mass and number emissions. This fuel resulted in a 62 percent reduction in solid particle number and an 88 percent reduction in soot mass during the highest emitting cold-start phase, Phasel, of the FTP-75, compared to Fuel C.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Low Emissions Class 8 Heavy-Duty On-Highway Natural Gas and Gasoline Engine

The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a Mack E7G engine operating stoichiometric with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst can meet the 2010 emission standards for heavy-duty on-highway engines. Results using natural gas and gasoline as the fuel are presented. The Mack E7G is currently a lean burn natural gas fueled engine, which was originally derived from the diesel engine. The calibration of the lean burn engine was modified to operate as a stoichiometric engine. An EGR system and a three-way catalyst were added to the engine. One of the lean burn natural gas ratings for this engine is 242 kW at 1950 rpm and 1424 N-m, at 1250 rpm. This rating was also used for the stoichiometric natural gas engine. Transient emissions and 13-mode steady-state emissions tests were conducted on the engine on natural gas. The engine meets the transient emission standards for 2010 for NOx, NMHC, and CO on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Emissions from an Advanced Technology Vehicle

A 1991 Toyota Camry equipped with an electrically-heated catalyst (EHC) system was evaluated in duplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with three different fuels. Evaluations were conducted with the EHC in place but without any external heating, and with the EHC operated with a post-crank heating strategy. The EHC system was placed immediately upstream of an original production catalyst, which was then moved to a location 40.6 cm from the exhaust manifold. The three test fuels were: 1) the Auto/Oil industry average gasoline, RF-A; 2) a fuel meeting California's Phase II gasoline specifications; and 3) a paraffinic test fuel. Non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission rates with the EHC active were similiar with all three fuels, with absolute levels less than or equal to California's 50,000 mile Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Substantial differences, however were observed in the ozone forming potential of these fuels with the EHC active.
Journal Article

Effect of EGR on Particle Emissions from a GDI Engine

Gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines are becoming a concern with respect to particulate matter (PM) emissions. The upcoming 2014 Euro 6 regulations may require a drastic reduction in solid particle number emissions from GDI engines and the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III regulations for 2014 and 2017 will also require some PM reduction measures. As a result, it is necessary to characterize PM emissions from GDI engines and investigate strategies that suppress particle formation during combustion. The main focus of this work was on using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means to reduce engine-out particle emissions from a GDI engine with an overall stoichiometric fuel to air mixture. A small displacement, turbocharged GDI engine was operated at a variety of steady-state conditions with differing levels of EGR to characterize total (solid plus volatile) and solid particle emissions with respect to size, number, and soot or black carbon mass.
Technical Paper

Durability of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The goal of the project was to reduce tailpipe-out hydrocarbon (HC) plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions to 50 percent or less of the current California Air Resources Board (CARB) useful life standard of 12 g/hp-hr for Class I engines, or 9 g/hp-hr for Class II engines. Low-emission engines were developed using three-way catalytic converters, passive secondary-air induction (SAI) systems, and in two cases, enleanment. Catalysts were integrated into the engine's mufflers, where feasible, to maintain a compact package. Due to the thermal sensitivity of these engines, carburetor calibrations were left unchanged in four of the six engines, at the stock rich settings. To enable HC oxidation under such rich conditions, a simple passive supplemental air injection system was developed. This system was then tuned to achieve the desired HC+NOx reduction.
Journal Article

Diesel Cold-Start Emission Control Research for 2015-2025 LEV III Emissions - Part 2

The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III and Tier 3 emission standards which will require significant reductions in hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines, so the time required to achieve effective emissions control after a cold-start with typical aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. To address this challenge, a novel diesel cold-start emission control strategy was investigated on a 2L class diesel engine. This strategy combines several technologies to reduce tailpipe HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75. The technologies include both engine tuning and aftertreatment changes.
Journal Article

Diesel Cold-Start Emission Control Research for 2015-2025 LEV III Emissions

The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III emissions standard which will require significant reductions of hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from current levels. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines so the time required to achieve effective emissions control with current aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diesel cold-start emissions control strategy for achieving LEV III emissions. The strategy combines several technologies to reduce HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of an Ethanol-Fueled Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

A 1993 Ford Taurus Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) designed to operate on gasoline or methanol has been modified to run on Ed85 (85 vol.% denatured ethanol, 15 vol.% gasoline) and has demonstrated the ability to meet California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. The vehicle maintains the excellent driveability with potentially increased performance and similar efficiency to the baseline vehicle. Using standard twin OEM catalysts, FTP-75 emissions were 0.085 g/mi NOx, 0.88 g/mi CO, and 0.039 g/mi reactivity-adjusted NMOG. Using close-coupled catalysts upstream of the OEM catalysts, FTP-75 emissions were 0.031 g/mi NOx, 0.297 g/mi CO, and 0.015 g/mi reactivity-adjusted NMOG. The catalysts were aged to about 4,000 miles of equivalent use. These emissions compare with ULEV standards of 0.2 g/mi NOx, 1.7 g/mi CO, and 0.04 g/mi NMOG at 50,000 miles of use.
Technical Paper

Countering the Effects of Media Interferences and Background Contamination in Collection of Low Concentration Aldehydes and Ketones in Engine Exhaust with Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) Derivatization

This paper discusses a method developed to counter the variability of media interferences for the measurement of aldehydes and ketones in automotive exhaust. Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) Derivatization Methodology for the collection of aldehyde and ketone compounds in vehicle exhaust has been in use for over thirty years. These carbonyl compounds are captured by passing diluted exhaust gas through a sample medium containing DNPH. The sampling medium can take the form of DNPH dispersed on a solid sorbent or as a DNPH solution in a solvent such as acetonitrile. Carbonyl compounds react readily to form DNPH derivatives which are stable and which absorb ultra-violet (UV) light, facilitating quantitative measurement. However, when the procedure was developed, emissions rates from vehicles were much higher than the current (2010) emissions levels.
Technical Paper

Aging of Zeolite Based Automotive Hydrocarbon Traps

This paper analyzes the aging of zeolite based hydrocarbon traps to guide development of diagnostic algorithms. Previous research has shown the water adsorption ability of zeolite ages along with the hydrocarbon adsorption ability, and this leads to a possible diagnostic algorithm: the water concentration in the exhaust can be measured and related to aging. In the present research, engine experiments demonstrate that temperature measurements are also related to aging. To examine the relationship between temperature-based and moisture-based diagnostic algorithms, a transient, nonlinear heat and mass transfer model of the exhaust during cold-start is developed. Despite some idealizations, the model replicates the qualitative behavior of the exhaust system. A series of parametric studies reveals the sensitivity of the system response to aging and various noise factors.