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Journal Article

Visual, Thermodynamic, and Electrochemical Analysis of Condensate in a Stoichiometric Spark-Ignited EGR Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1406
The objectives of this project were to investigate the corrosivity of condensate in a stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engine when running exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and to determine the effects of sulfur-in-fuel on corrosion. A 2.0 L turbocharged direct-injected SI engine was operated with low-pressure EGR for this study. The engine was instrumented for visual, thermodynamic, and electrochemical analyses to determine the potential for corrosion at locations where condensation was deemed likely in a low-pressure loop EGR (LPL-EGR) engine. The electrochemical analysis was performed using multi-electrode array (MEA) corrosion probes. Condensate was also collected and analyzed. These analyses were performed downstream of both the charge air cooler (CAC) and the EGR cooler. It was found that while conditions existed for sulfuric acid to form with high-sulfur fuel, no sulfuric acid was detected by any of the measurement methods.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drive Cycle Fuel Economy Prediction Using Single Cylinder Engine Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0628
The confluence of fuel economy improvement requirements and increased use of ethanol as a gasoline blend component has led to various studies into the efficiency and performance benefits to be had when using high octane number, high ethanol content fuels in modern engines. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of fuels in both the CFR octane rating engine and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were prepared with market relevant ranges of octane numbers and ethanol blends levels. The paper reports on the first part of this study where fuel flow measurements were done on a single cylinder research engine, utilizing a GM LHU combustion system, and then used to predict drive cycle fuel economy. For a range of engine speeds and manifold air pressures, spark timing was adjusted to achieve either the maximum brake torque (MBT) or a matched 50 % mass fraction burnt location.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Stratified Charge Glowplug Ignition (SCGI) Engine with Natural Gas Fuel

1991-09-01
911767
The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a natural gas two-stroke engine using glow plug ignition with very lean mixtures. Based on the results obtained, the term SCGI (stratified charge glow plug ignition) was coined to describe the engine. An JLO two-stroke diesel engine was converted first to a natural gas fueled spark-ignited engine for the baseline tests, and then to an SCGI engine. The SCGI engine used a gas operated valve in the cylinder head to admit the natural gas fuel, and a glow plug was used as a means to initiate the combustion. The engine was successfully run, but was found to be sensitive to various conditions such as the glow plug temperature. The engine would run very lean, to an overall equivalence ratio of 0.33, offering the potential of good fuel economy and low NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Statistical Design Method for Co-Creation HMI Applications in the Chinese Automotive Market

2017-03-28
2017-01-0650
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
Journal Article

The Effects of Piston Crevices and Injection Strategy on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1148
The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, has developed into a topic of major interest due to its potential for engine damage. Previous experiments associated increases in hydrocarbon emissions with the blowdown event of an LSPI cycle [1]. Also, the same experiments showed that there was a dependency of the LSPI activity on fuel and/or lubricant compositions [1]. Based on these findings it was hypothesized that accumulated hydrocarbons play a role in LSPI and are consumed during LSPI events. A potential source for accumulated HC is the top land piston crevice.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting Location on the HC Emissions from SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0502
The effect of combustion chamber wall-wetting on the emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs) from gasoline-fueled SI engines was investigated experimentally. A spark-plug mounted directional injection probe was developed to study the fate of liquid fuel which impinges on different surfaces of the combustion chamber, and to quantify its contribution to the HC emissions from direct-injected (DI) and port-fuel injected (PFI) engines. With this probe, a controlled amount of liquid fuel was deposited on a given location within the combustion chamber at a desired crank angle while the engine was operated on pre-mixed LPG. Thus, with this technique, the HC emissions due to in-cylinder wall wetting were studied independently of all other HC sources. Results from these tests show that the location where liquid fuel impinges on the combustion chamber has a very important effect on the resulting HC emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment on EGR Tolerance in Spark Ignited Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0475
Small (up to 1% by volume) amounts of hydrogen (H2) were added to the intake charge of a single-cylinder, stoichiometric spark ignited engine to determine the effect of H2 addition on EGR tolerance. Two types of tests were performed at 1500 rpm, two loads (3.1 bar and 5.5 bar IMEP), two compression ratios (11:1 and 14:1) and with two fuels (gasoline and natural gas). The first test involved holding EGR level constant and increasing the H2 concentration. The EGR level of the engine was increased until the CoV of IMEP was > 5% and then small amounts of hydrogen were added until the total was 1% by volume. The effect of increasing the amount of H2 on engine stability was measured along with combustion parameters and engine emissions. The results showed that only a very small amount of H2 was necessary to stabilize the engine. At amounts past that level, increasing the level of H2 had no or only a very small effect.
Journal Article

The Effect of EGR on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0339
The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines - where the engine displacement is reduced and turbocharging is employed to increase specific power - a new combustion phenomenon, described as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), has been exhibited. LSPI is characterized as a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, which has the potential to cause degradation of the engine. However, because LSPI events occur only sporadically and in an uncontrolled fashion, it is difficult to identify the causes for this phenomenon and to develop solutions to suppress it. Some countermeasures exist that OEMs can use to avoid LSPI, such as load limiting, but these have drawbacks.
Technical Paper

The ASTM Test Monitoring Center - Evolving in a Changing Industry

2000-10-16
2000-01-2946
This paper traces the evolution of the ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC) from its modest beginnings in 1976 to the present. Formed as an unbiased and non-aligned group within ASTM Subcommittee D02.B, the TMC operates a reference oil based calibration system that serves both the producers and users of automotive lubricants. Governed by the ASTM Test Monitoring Board, the center's primary mission is to calibrate engine dynamometer test stands used to conduct various ASTM test methods for evaluating lubricant performance. The core services of the TMC have remained the same over its nearly 25 year history. The center stores and distributes ASTM reference oils and is responsible for assuring, through the use of analytical testing, the quality and consistency of the oils. The number of reference oils handled by the TMC has steadily increased over time such that today the center inventories some 100 different formulations having a total volume of 65,000 gallons.
Technical Paper

The 1989 Formula SAE Student Design Competition

1990-02-01
900840
Forty-five cars were entered from 37 universities across the U.S. and Canada in the ninth annual Formula SAE Student Design Competition held on May 25, 26 and 27 at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). Thirty-six cars from 31 schools actually competed, but only 22 cars finished. The event included many firsts in Formula SAE. The SAE South Texas Section set a precedent by co-hosting the competition with the UTSA. The GM Sunraycer display and demonstration exhibited high technology and corporate support of Formula SAE. Total award funds (from various sponsors) exceeded those of previous events. New awards were given by new sponsors in 1989.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0116
A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Journal Article

Standardization of Graphics for Service Information and Translation Expense Reduction

2009-10-06
2009-01-2857
The cost of human natural language translation of Service Information, Assembly Instructions, Training Materials, Operator Manuals and other similar documents is a major expense for manufacturers. One translation avoidance method involves replacing most of a document’s text with still and/or animated graphics. While the graphics with minimum text concept has savings potential, clarity of communication must be maintained for widespread application of this technique. The necessary clarity should be achieved if standards are established for the symbols and graphical conventions used. This paper provides an example of a repair procedure documented using the graphics with minimum text paradigm, describes many of the anticipated standards and provides an update on the progress towards achieving a standard development project.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization in a DISI Engine During Cold Start: (1) Imaging Investigation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1004
Spray angle and penetration length data were taken under cold start conditions for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine to investigate the effect of transient conditions on spray development. The results show that during cold start, spray development depends primarily on fuel pressure, followed by Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP). Injection frequency had little effect on spray development. The spray for this single hole, pressure-swirl fuel injector was characterized using high speed imaging. The fuel spray was characterized by three different regimes. Regime 1 comprised fuel pressures from 6 - 13 bar, MAPs from 0.7 - 1 bar, and was characterized by a large pre-spray along with large drop sizes. The spray angle and penetration lengths were comparatively small. Regime 2 comprised fuel pressures from 30 - 39 bar and MAPs from 0.51 - 0.54 bar. A large pre-spray and large drop sizes were still present but reduced compared to Regime 1.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Electric Power Generation from Light-Duty Spark Ignition and Diesel Engine Exhaust Flows

2013-04-08
2013-01-1644
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used to recover waste heat from the exhaust of a diesel and a spark ignition engine for electric power generation was modeled. The design elements of the ORC incorporated into the thermodynamic model were based on an experimental study performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which a regenerative organic Rankine cycle system was designed, assembled and integrated into the exhaust of a 1.9 liter 4-cylinder automotive turbo-diesel. This engine was operated at a single fixed-load point at which Rankine cycle state point temperatures as well as the electrical power output of an electric generator coupled to a turbine that expanded R245fa refrigerant were measured. These data were used for model calibration.
Technical Paper

Scuderi Split Cycle Engine: Air Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain Simulation Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1013
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges; it also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper presents the methodology and results of a comprehensive study to investigate the benefits of air hybrid operation with the Scuderi Split Cycle (SSC) engine. Four air hybrid operating modes are made possible by the Split Cycle configuration, namely air compressor, air expander, air expander & firing and firing & charging. The predicted operating requirements for each individual operating mode are established. The air and fuel flow of the individual modes are fully mapped throughout the engine operating speed and load range and air tank pressure operating range.
Technical Paper

SIMULATION OF A VEHICLE SUSPENSION WITH THE ADAMS COMPUTER PROGRAM

1977-02-01
770053
This paper describes a computer simulation of the front suspension of a 1973 Chevrolet Malibu using the ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) computer program. The model was proposed by the SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee for evaluating the speed, economy and accuracy of various computer simulations in predicting displacements and loads in a suspension system. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is given.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

2002-11-18
2002-01-3086
Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Journal Article

Protecting Intellectual Property When Publishing 3-D Models

2008-10-07
2008-01-2706
Light-weight 3-D models offer improved communication and visualization for advertising, marketing, service technicians, suppliers and other business partners. These models also may be a ready source of geometry and a window into a company's intellectual property for miscreants seeking to pirate designs and to produce counterfeit or will-fit parts. What approaches and tools are available to help protect a company's intellectual property while enabling it and its business partners to benefit from widespread distribution of 3-D animations and models? How should they be applied to effectively protect intellectual property? This paper provides a general survey of techniques available for protecting intellectual property in 3-D models when sending these files outside of a company and into broad distribution.
Technical Paper

Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching to EIVC Strategy on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0192
The use of early intake valve closing (EIVC) can lead to improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of EIVC for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting as EIVC strategies reduce volumetric efficiency. Turbochargers with variable nozzle turbines (VNT) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures. The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some EIVC applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, compression ratios and fuel types.
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