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Technical Paper

Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst Development and Optimization for a D-EGR® Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1968
Dedicated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (D-EGR®) technology provides a novel means for fuel efficiency improvement through efficient, on-board generation of H2 and CO reformate [1, 2]. In the simplest form of the D-EGR configuration, reformate is produced in-cylinder through rich combustion of the gasoline-air charge mixture. It is also possible to produce more H2 by means of a Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst, thereby resulting in further combustion improvements and overall fuel consumption reduction. In industrial applications, the WGS reaction has been used successfully for many years. Previous engine applications of this technology, however, have only proven successful to a limited degree. The motivation for this work was to develop and optimize a WGS catalyst which can be employed to a D-EGR configuration of an internal combustion engine. This study consists of two parts.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

Toward the Environmentally-Friendly Small Engine: Fuel, Lubricant, and Emission Measurement Issues

1991-11-01
911222
Small engines which are friendly toward the environment are needed all over the world, whether the need is expressed in terms of energy efficiency, useful engine life, health benefits for the user, or emission regulations enacted to protect a population or an ecologically-sensitive area. Progress toward the widespread application of lower-impact small engines is being made through engine design, matching of engine to equipment and task, aftertreatment technology, alternative and reformulated fuels, and improved lubricants. This paper describes three research and development projects, focused on the interrelationships of fuels, lubricants, and emissions in Otto-cycle engines, which were conducted by Southwest Research Institute. All the work reported was funded internally as part of a commitment to advance the state of small engine technology and thus enhance human utility.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 2: Comparisons of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Fuel/Water Emulsion and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0087
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

2017-10-08
2017-01-2414
The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0116
A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Electric Power Generation from Light-Duty Spark Ignition and Diesel Engine Exhaust Flows

2013-04-08
2013-01-1644
The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used to recover waste heat from the exhaust of a diesel and a spark ignition engine for electric power generation was modeled. The design elements of the ORC incorporated into the thermodynamic model were based on an experimental study performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which a regenerative organic Rankine cycle system was designed, assembled and integrated into the exhaust of a 1.9 liter 4-cylinder automotive turbo-diesel. This engine was operated at a single fixed-load point at which Rankine cycle state point temperatures as well as the electrical power output of an electric generator coupled to a turbine that expanded R245fa refrigerant were measured. These data were used for model calibration.
Technical Paper

Performance Predictions for High Efficiency Stoichiometric Spark Ignited Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0995
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is exploring the feasibility of extending the performance and fuel efficiency of the spark ignition (SI) engine to match that of the emission constrained compression (CI) engine, whilst retaining the cost effective 3-way stoichiometric aftertreatment systems associated with traditional SI light duty engines. The engine concept, which has a relatively high compression ratio and uses heavy EGR, is called “HEDGE”, i.e. High Efficiency Durable Gasoline Engine. Whereas previous SwRI papers have been medium and heavy duty development focused, this paper uses results from simulations, with some test bed correlations, to predict multicylinder torque curves, brake thermal efficiency and NOx emissions as well as knock limit for light and medium duty applications.
Video

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of a Hydrostatic Powertrain in the Presence of Accessory Loads

2002-03-19
2002-01-1417
In off-highway applications the engine torque is distributed between the transmission (propulsion) and other accessories such as power steering, air conditioning and implements. Electronic controls offer the opportunity to more efficiently manage the control of the engine and transmission as an integrated system. This paper deals with development of a steepest descent algorithm for maximizing the efficiency of hydrostatic transmission along with the engine in the presence of accessory load. The methodology is illustrated with an example. The strategy can be extended to the full hydro-mechanical configuration as required. Applications of this approach include adjusting for component wear and intelligent energy management between different accessories for possible size reduction of powertrain components. The potential benefits of this strategy are improved fuel efficiency and operator productivity.
Technical Paper

On-Board Hydrogen Generation for Rapid Catalyst Light-Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1841
This paper describes an on-vehicle demonstration of a hydrogen-heated catalyst (HHC) system for reducing the level of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle. The HHC system incorporated an onboard electrolyzer that generates and stores hydrogen (H2) during routine vehicle operation. Stored hydrogen and supplemental air are injected upstream of a platinum-containing automotive catalyst when the engine is started. Rapid heating of the catalytic converter occurs immediately as a result of catalytic oxidation of hydrogen (H2) with oxygen (O2) on the catalyst surface. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results of the hydrogen-heated catalyst-equipped vehicle demonstrated reductions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) up to 68 and 62 percent, respectively. This study includes a brief analysis of the emissions and fuel economy effects of a 10-minute period of hydrogen generation during the FTP.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle Application to the Scuderi Split Cycle Engine (by Downsizing the Compressor Cylinder)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0419
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. A Miller cycle configuration of the engine is made possible by turbocharging with a downsized compressor cylinder and has been modeled in 1-dimensional cycle simulation software.
Technical Paper

Impact of Operating Parameters on Ignition System Energy Consumption

2014-04-01
2014-01-1233
The use of cooled EGR in gasoline engines improves the fuel efficiency of the engine through a variety of mechanisms, including improving the charge properties (e.g. the ratio of specific heats), reducing knock and enabling higher compression ratio operation and, at part loads conditions in particular, reducing pumping work. One of the limiting factors on the level of improvement from cooled EGR is the ability of the ignition system to ignite a dilute mixture and maintain engine stability. Previous work from SwRI has shown that, by increasing the ignition duration and using a continuous discharge ignition system, an improved ignition system can substantially increase the EGR tolerance of an engine [1, 2]. This improvement comes at a cost, however, of increased ignition system energy requirements and a potential decrease in spark plug durability. This work examines the impact of engine operating parameters on the ignition energy requirements under high dilution operation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Effects of Lubricants in Military Vehicles

2010-10-25
2010-01-2180
The US Army is currently seeking to reduce fuel consumption by utilizing fuel efficient lubricants in its ground vehicle fleet. An additional desire is for a lubricant which would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel efficient, multifunctional Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL) with extended drain capabilities. To quantify the fuel efficiency impact of a SCPL type fluid in the engine and transmission, current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil was used in place of MIL-PRF-2104G 15W-40 oil and SAE J1321 Fuel Consumption In-Service testing was conducted. Additionally, synthetic SAE 75W-140 gear oil was evaluated in the axles of the vehicles in place of an SAE J2360 80W-90 oil. The test vehicles used for the study were three M1083A1 5-Ton Cargo vehicles from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV).
Technical Paper

Filtration Requirements and Evaluation Procedure for a Rotary Injection Fuel Pump

1997-10-01
972872
A cooperative research and development program was organized to determine the critical particle size of abrasive debris that will cause significant wear in rotary injection fuel pumps. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0-5 to 10-20 μm were evaluated to determine which caused the pumps to fail. With the exception of the 0-5-μm test dust, all other test dust ranges evaluated caused failure in the rotary injection pumps. After preliminary testing, it was agreed that the 4-8-μm test dust would be used for further testing. Analysis revealed that the critical particle size causing significant wear is 6-7 μm. This is a smaller abrasive particle size than reported in previously published literature. A rotary injection pump evaluation methodology was developed. During actual operation, the fuel injection process creates a shock wave that propagates back up the fuel line to the fuel filter.
Technical Paper

Dilute Combustion Assessment in Large Bore, Low Speed Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0580
The promising D-EGR gasoline engine results achieved in the test cell, and then in a vehicle demonstration have led to exploration of further possible applications. A study has been conducted to explore the use of D-EGR gasoline engines as a lower cost replacement for medium duty diesel engines in trucks and construction equipment. However, medium duty diesel engines have larger displacement, and tend to require high torque at lower engine speeds than their automobile counterparts. Transmission and final drive gearing can be utilized to operate the engine at higher speeds, but this penalizes life-to-overhaul. It is therefore important to ensure that D-EGR combustion system performance can be maintained with a larger cylinder bore, and with high specific output at relatively low engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Journal Article

Development and Implementation of a Mapless, Model Based SCR Control System

2014-07-01
2014-01-9050
Various engine platforms employ Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to reduce the tail pipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel engines as part of an overall strategy to comply with the emission regulations in place in various countries. High levels of NOx conversion (greater than 98%) in SCR aftertreatment may provide operating margin to increase overall fuel efficiency. However, to realize the potential fuel efficiency gains, the SCR technology employed should achieve high NOx conversion with limited reductant slip over transient application cycles in addition to steady state operation. A new approach to SCR controls was developed and implemented. This approach does not rely on any maps to determine the amount of urea solution to be dosed, thus significantly reducing calibration and development time and effort when implementing the SCR technology on multiple engine platforms and applications.
Technical Paper

Determination of Wear Index to Predict Fuel Filtration Performance

1999-03-01
1999-01-0003
The Beta ratio and filtration ratio are two common rating systems used to designate the abrasive filtration efficiency of fuel filters. Previous research developed a series of wear curves to predict the effects of abrasive particles of varying sizes on fuel injector performance. Based on this data, a formula was generated to predict injector wear based on the number of 5-, 10-, and 15-μm particles in the effluent. This value is called the wear index. (1,2)1 Various fuel filters with the same manufacturer rating were evaluated on a test engine to determine the wear index for each of these fuel filters. The results demonstrate the differences between these “similar” fuel filters and how the wear index provides additional information as compared to Beta and filtration ratios.
Journal Article

Dedicated EGR: A New Concept in High Efficiency Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0694
The use of high levels of EGR has been documented to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of spark ignition engines [1–5]. However, these engines typically face challenges in EGR control and tolerance, which can reduce the expected efficiency improvement. A concept developed by Southwest Research Institute explores the potential of an engine with individual cylinders dedicated to EGR production to overcome the challenges associated with EGR tolerance and control. In this study, a 4-cylinder engine was run with cylinder 1 exhausting directly to the intake manifold, leading to a constant 25% EGR level. The engine was run naturally aspirated over a large portion of the performance map at an ultra-high (14:1) compression ratio. As a part of the study, air-to-fuel ratio in cylinder 1 was varied from stoichiometric to rich to determine the effect of the products of partial combustion on EGR tolerance and fuel consumption.
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