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Technical Paper

Using the Six Sigma Methodology for Process Variation Reduction

2007-11-28
2007-01-2872
This paper is about the use of the Six Sigma Methodology, to solve variation problems in the manufacture area, at one of the Delphi Automotive Systems unit that manufacturer electrical harness. The DMAIC framework was followed, the improvements were done, eliminating the rots causes, and the use of Six Sigma methodology, was showed very efficient in solve problems. The methodology power, is in using a structured frame work, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control), completing by quality quality tools (Pareto Chart, Five Why's, Cause and Effect Diagram) and statistical analyses, for example: variance analyses, hypotheses tests and Design of Experiments.
Technical Paper

USE OF CFD SIMULATION TO PREDICT CAVITATION IN AUTOMOTIVE HEATER CORES

2005-11-22
2005-01-4027
Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

US and UK Field Rollover Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0167
In this study, US and UK accident data were analyzed to identify parameters that may influence rollover propensity to analyze driver injury rate. The US data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS), calendar years 1992 to 1996. The UK pre-roll data was obtained from the national STATS 19 database for 1996, while the injury information was collected from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database. In the US and UK databases, rollovers accounted for about 10% of all crashes with known crash directions. In the US and UK databases, most rollovers occurred when the vehicle was either going straight ahead or turning. The propensity for a rollover was more than 3 times higher when going around a bend than a non-rollover. In the UK, 74% of rollovers occurred on clear days with no high winds and 14% on rainy days with no high winds. In the US, 83% of rollovers took place in non-adverse weather conditions and 10% with rain.
Technical Paper

US and UK Belted Driver Injuries with and without Airbag Deployments - A Field Data Analysis

1999-03-01
1999-01-0633
This study compares the effect of US and European airbag deployments on injury outcomes for belted drivers in frontal crashes. Driver weight, height and seat track position was also examined in relation to those outcomes. This information may help to prioritize and guide the logic for “Smart” airbags. For the study, only airbag-equipped cars were considered. Two accident databases were used: 1) the weighted and unweighted National Accident Sampling System (NASS-CDS) from the US, calendar years 1995 to 1996, and 2) the unweighted Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) from the UK, calendar years 1992 to 1998. The parameters investigated were Injury Severity Score (ISS), Equivalent Test Speed (ETS), occupant weight, occupant height and seat location. For US drivers, the injury rate and occurrence were calculated using weighted data, while for UK drivers, the rate and occurrence were obtained using unweighted data.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Thermally-Induced Microstructural Changes in a Three-Way Automotive Catalyst

1997-10-01
972905
The use of advanced electron microscopy techniques to characterize both the bulk and near-atomic level microstructural evolution of catalyst materials during different dynamometer/vehicle aging cycles is an integral part of understanding catalyst deactivation. The study described here was undertaken to evaluate thermally-induced microstructural changes which caused the progressive loss of catalyst performance in a three-way automotive catalyst. Several different catalyst processing variables, for example changing the washcoat ceria content, were also evaluated as a function of aging cycle and thermal history. A number of thermally-induced microstructural changes were identified using high resolution electron microscopy techniques that contributed to the deactivation of the catalyst, including sintering of all washcoat constituents, γ-alumina transforming to α-, β-, and δ-alumina, precious metal redistribution, and constituent encapsulation.
Technical Paper

The Solution for Steady State Temperature Distribution in Monolithic Catalytic Converters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0941
This paper presents a simplified thermal model for round catalytic converters in steady state operation. Using this model, the analytic solution for the temperature distribution in the monolithic substrate is obtained. This analytic solution in the substrate is, then, combined with those in the intumescent mat [1] and the metal shell to obtain the temperature profile in the radial direction of the converter except for three unknown temperatures at the three material interfaces, which can be solved using an Excel application program. This analytical temperature solution facilitates the studies of the effects of various design parameters such as the exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas flow rate, substrate cell geometry, converter dimensions, and ambient temperature and flow, etc.
Technical Paper

The New Wireless Frontier: Home and Vehicle Connectivity

2004-10-18
2004-21-0068
Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle.
Technical Paper

Suppression Technologies for Advanced Air Bags

2000-11-01
2000-01-C037
In May 2000 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the final rule for the Advanced Air Bag regulations effective MY 2004 for vehicles to be sold in the United States. These regulations are in response to the air bag-induced injuries seen in the field, especially to children and short women. Advanced air bags require a vehicle manufacturer to design air bags for a broad array of occupants: 12-month-old, 3-year-old and 6-year-old children, and 5th percentile adult females, as well as 50th percentile adult males with new and more stringent injury criteria. Requirements for minimizing air bag risks include automatically turning off the air bag in the presence of young children or deploying the air bag in a manner much less likely to cause serious or fatal injury to out-of-position occupants. Technologies that disable the air bag in the presence of young children or adults in out-of-position are termed as "suppression technologies.'
Technical Paper

Six Sigma: Behind The Scenes

2002-11-19
2002-01-3510
Although the Six Sigma [1] concept has become very popular in industrial sectors, very little is said about how to start a successful implementation in a Corporation, or when it should be initiated, and the most important, who should be addressed to lead this task. Its methodologies are widely observed by different sectors of the automotive market, typically focusing in projects with a potential financial impact, following the DMAIC sequence. More than just financial return, this sophisticated tool, has a direct impact on Quality in different levels for both non-productive process and manufacturing process, that eventually would also affect some organizational structures that ultimately can be understood as reengineering.
Technical Paper

Single Crystal Silicon Low-g Acceleration Sensor

2002-03-04
2002-01-1080
A single-crystal silicon capacitive acceleration sensor for low-g applications has been developed. The sensor element itself is formed entirely from single crystal silicon, giving it exceptional stability over time and temperature and excellent shock resistance. The sensor is produced using low-cost, high volume processing, test and calibration. The sensor integrated circuit (IC) contains a proofmass which moves in response to applied accelerations. The position of the proofmass is capacitively detected and processed by an interface IC. The sensor/interface IC system is packaged in a small outline IC (SOIC) package for printed circuit board mounting. The module is designed to measure full scale accelerations in the 0.75g to 3g range to suit a variety of automotive, industrial and consumer applications
Technical Paper

Rollover Stability Index Including Effects of Suspension Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0965
In this paper a simple yet insightful model to predict vehicle propensity to rollover is proposed, which includes the effects of suspension and tire compliance. The model uses only a few parameters, usually known at the design stage. The lateral accelerations at the rollover threshold predicted by the model are compared to the results of simulations, in which vehicles with the same static stability factor, but different suspension characteristics and payloads are subjected to roll-inducing handling maneuvers. The results of simulations correlate well with the predictions based on the proposed model. Design recommendations for passive suspensions, which would increase rollover stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Rapid Algorithm Development Tools Applied to Engine Management Systems

1998-02-23
980799
Intense competition in the automotive industry requires continuous reduction in innovation cycle time, even as corporations are downsizing and system complexity is increasing. Subsequently, the application of recently introduced Rapid Algorithm Development (RAD) tools has facilitated significant advances in the development of embedded control systems. The RAD steps include system modeling, control algorithm design, simulation analysis, automated calibration design, and vehicle implementation through automatic code generation. The application of RAD tools and the associated benefits are described, specifically in the context of Engine Management Systems (EMS). Such benefits include significant reductions in development cycle time, open architecture, automated calibration, and information reuse.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Door & Seat Side-Impact Airbags for Passenger Van and Sport-Utility Vehicles

1998-02-23
980912
Side impact accounts for a significant source of societal harm, injury and death. To address this issue, Europe and US have introduced legislation to be met for the new vehicle certification. In an effort to meet these regulations and the market demand for safety, Automotive manufacturers have significantly improved vehicle side structure integrity and introduced side impact airbags are for added protection. Today, passenger vans, light truck and sport-utility type vehicles are all popular consumer choices in the US. These vehicles differ significantly from passenger cars in many respects and as such need special design considerations for side airbags. Here, MADYMO-3D model of a generic passenger van / Sport-Utility type vehicle is created and correlated to FMVSS-214 side impact crash test. This model is used to evaluate both door and seat mounted side airbag designs in different orientations at standard test impact condition and at a higher speed.
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

2012-10-02
2012-36-0262
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

2000-03-06
2000-01-1364
Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

Multi-Sensor Modules with Data Bus Communication Capability

1999-03-01
1999-01-1277
Automotive multi-sensor modules, capable of vehicle-wide communications via a data bus will be discussed. Proper sensor grouping, packaging and device placement are key issues in the implementation of smart sensor modules. Sensors that are candidates for clustering include temperature, acceleration, angular rate, barometric pressure, chemical, and light sensors. The capability to accommodate a variety of data bus communication protocols is required to satisfy the majority of automotive systems. System integration must be considered when employing a smart sensor network through-out an automobile in a cost effective manner. This paper will cover the module issues associated with sensing, packaging, electronics, communication and system integration.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

2000-11-01
2000-01-C071
The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
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