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Technical Paper

Variable Effort Steering for Vehicle Stability Enhancement Using an Electric Power Steering System

This paper investigates a method for improving vehicle stability by incorporating feedback from a yaw rate sensor into an electric power steering system. Presently, vehicle stability enhancement techniques are an extension of antilock braking systems in aiding the driver during vehicle maneuvers. One of the contributors to loss of vehicle control is the reduction in tactile feedback from the steering handwheel when driving on wet or icy pavement. This paper presents research indicating that the use yaw rate feedback improves vehicle stability by increasing the amount of tactile feedback when driving under adverse road conditions.
Technical Paper

Using the Six Sigma Methodology for Process Variation Reduction

This paper is about the use of the Six Sigma Methodology, to solve variation problems in the manufacture area, at one of the Delphi Automotive Systems unit that manufacturer electrical harness. The DMAIC framework was followed, the improvements were done, eliminating the rots causes, and the use of Six Sigma methodology, was showed very efficient in solve problems. The methodology power, is in using a structured frame work, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control), completing by quality quality tools (Pareto Chart, Five Why's, Cause and Effect Diagram) and statistical analyses, for example: variance analyses, hypotheses tests and Design of Experiments.
Technical Paper

Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip Assignment - Part II: Yaw Rate Control with Sideslip Angle Limitation

This paper is an extension to the work presented in part I [1]. The control objective is still the same - use a logic based control design technique to assign a wheel slip, λ, to each corner of a vehicle, to track overall desired vehicle dynamics. As in part I, a fuzzy logic based controller is the primary control, with additional logic to select the inside/outside classifiers for the wheels. In part I, only the reduction of yaw rate error, e, was considered. It was shown that, although the overall system had satisfactory performance, there was slight deteriorization in the tracking performance when trying to compensate through a significant vehicle sideslip angle, β. In this paper, additional logic is introduced into the control to limit the vehicle sideslip angle, β; thus, allowing for a more robust desired yaw rate, Ωd, tracking control performance. The emergency lane change maneuver is simulated to show the effectiveness of the redesigned control.
Technical Paper


Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

Thermally-Induced Microstructural Changes in a Three-Way Automotive Catalyst

The use of advanced electron microscopy techniques to characterize both the bulk and near-atomic level microstructural evolution of catalyst materials during different dynamometer/vehicle aging cycles is an integral part of understanding catalyst deactivation. The study described here was undertaken to evaluate thermally-induced microstructural changes which caused the progressive loss of catalyst performance in a three-way automotive catalyst. Several different catalyst processing variables, for example changing the washcoat ceria content, were also evaluated as a function of aging cycle and thermal history. A number of thermally-induced microstructural changes were identified using high resolution electron microscopy techniques that contributed to the deactivation of the catalyst, including sintering of all washcoat constituents, γ-alumina transforming to α-, β-, and δ-alumina, precious metal redistribution, and constituent encapsulation.
Technical Paper

The Solution for Steady State Temperature Distribution in Monolithic Catalytic Converters

This paper presents a simplified thermal model for round catalytic converters in steady state operation. Using this model, the analytic solution for the temperature distribution in the monolithic substrate is obtained. This analytic solution in the substrate is, then, combined with those in the intumescent mat [1] and the metal shell to obtain the temperature profile in the radial direction of the converter except for three unknown temperatures at the three material interfaces, which can be solved using an Excel application program. This analytical temperature solution facilitates the studies of the effects of various design parameters such as the exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas flow rate, substrate cell geometry, converter dimensions, and ambient temperature and flow, etc.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Development Update

Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW are jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, by supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness. Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW were successful in demonstrating an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology in February, 2001.
Technical Paper

Six Sigma: Behind The Scenes

Although the Six Sigma [1] concept has become very popular in industrial sectors, very little is said about how to start a successful implementation in a Corporation, or when it should be initiated, and the most important, who should be addressed to lead this task. Its methodologies are widely observed by different sectors of the automotive market, typically focusing in projects with a potential financial impact, following the DMAIC sequence. More than just financial return, this sophisticated tool, has a direct impact on Quality in different levels for both non-productive process and manufacturing process, that eventually would also affect some organizational structures that ultimately can be understood as reengineering.
Technical Paper

Single Crystal Silicon Low-g Acceleration Sensor

A single-crystal silicon capacitive acceleration sensor for low-g applications has been developed. The sensor element itself is formed entirely from single crystal silicon, giving it exceptional stability over time and temperature and excellent shock resistance. The sensor is produced using low-cost, high volume processing, test and calibration. The sensor integrated circuit (IC) contains a proofmass which moves in response to applied accelerations. The position of the proofmass is capacitively detected and processed by an interface IC. The sensor/interface IC system is packaged in a small outline IC (SOIC) package for printed circuit board mounting. The module is designed to measure full scale accelerations in the 0.75g to 3g range to suit a variety of automotive, industrial and consumer applications
Journal Article

Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
Technical Paper

Rapid Algorithm Development Tools Applied to Engine Management Systems

Intense competition in the automotive industry requires continuous reduction in innovation cycle time, even as corporations are downsizing and system complexity is increasing. Subsequently, the application of recently introduced Rapid Algorithm Development (RAD) tools has facilitated significant advances in the development of embedded control systems. The RAD steps include system modeling, control algorithm design, simulation analysis, automated calibration design, and vehicle implementation through automatic code generation. The application of RAD tools and the associated benefits are described, specifically in the context of Engine Management Systems (EMS). Such benefits include significant reductions in development cycle time, open architecture, automated calibration, and information reuse.
Technical Paper

Powertrains of the Future: Reducing the Impact of Transportation on the Environment

Tomorrow's winning powertrain solutions reside in those technology combinations providing optimized propulsion systems with zero emissions and no cost or performance penalty compared with today's vehicles. The recent Kyoto Protocol for CO2 reduction and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) thrust for zero emission vehicles along with the European Regulatory community, motivate car manufacturers to adopt new light body structures with low aerodynamic drag coefficients, low-rolling resistance and the highest efficiency powertrains. The environmental equation expresses car manufacturers aptitude and desire to create zero emission vehicles at acceptable levels of performance unlike limited range electrical powered vehicle products. The cheapest solution to the environmental equation remains the conventional internal combustion engine ($30 to $50 per kW).
Technical Paper

Paradox of Miniaturization Trend Versus Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Requirements

In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables.
Technical Paper

Palladium/Rhodium Dual-Catalyst LEV 2 and Bin 4 Close-Coupled Emission Solutions

Dual-monolith catalyst systems containing Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) provide effective emission solutions for LEV2/Bin 5 and Bin 4 close-coupled applications at low PGM loadings. These systems combine washcoat technology and PGM distribution for front and rear catalysts resulting in optimal hydrocarbon and NOx light-off and transient NOx control. The dual-catalyst [Pd/Rh + Pd/Rh] systems are characterized as a function of Pd-Rh content, PGM location, and catalyst technology for 4-cyl [close-coupled + underfloor] systems and 6-cyl close-coupled applications. The current Pd/Rh dual-catalyst converters significantly reduce NOx emissions compared to earlier [Pd + Pt/Rh] or [Pd + Pd/Rh] LEV/ULEV systems by utilizing uniform Rh distribution and new OSC materials. These new design strategies particularly impact NOx performance, especially during transient A/F excursions.
Technical Paper

Palladium and Platinum/Rhodium Dual-Catalyst Emission Solutions for Close-Coupled or Underfloor Applications

Dual-brick catalyst systems containing Pd-only catalysts followed by Pt/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) are effective emission solutions for both close-coupled and underfloor LEV/ULEV applications due to optimal hydrocarbon light-off, NOx control, and balance of precious metal (PGM) usage. Dual-brick [Pd +Pt/Rh] systems on 3.8L V-6 LEV-calibrated vehicles were characterized as a function of PGM loading, catalyst technology, converter volumes, and substrate cell density. While hydrocarbon emissions improve with increasing Pd loading, decreasing the front catalyst volume at constant Pd content (resulting in higher Pd density) improved light-off emissions. Use of 600cpsi substrates improved underfloor NMHC emissions on a 3.8L vehicle by ∼ 6-10mg/mi compared to 400cpsi catalysts, and thus allowing reduction of catalyst volume while achieving ULEV emission levels without air addition.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Vehicle Dynamics (NAVDyn): A Reduced Order Model for Vehicle Handling Analysis

Many vehicle-dynamics models exist to study the motion of a vehicle. Most of these models fall into one of two categories: very simple models for basic analyses and high-order models consisting of many degrees-of-freedom. For many scenarios, the simple models are not adequate. At the same time, for many vehicle handling and braking studies, the high-order models are more complex than necessary. This paper presents a model that includes the dynamics that are relevant to studying vehicle handling and braking, but is still simple enough to run in near real-time. The model was implemented in such a way that it is easily customized for a particular study. Predictions from this simplified model were compared against a high-order model and against actual vehicle test data. The simulations indicate a close agreement in the results.
Technical Paper

Multi-Sensor Modules with Data Bus Communication Capability

Automotive multi-sensor modules, capable of vehicle-wide communications via a data bus will be discussed. Proper sensor grouping, packaging and device placement are key issues in the implementation of smart sensor modules. Sensors that are candidates for clustering include temperature, acceleration, angular rate, barometric pressure, chemical, and light sensors. The capability to accommodate a variety of data bus communication protocols is required to satisfy the majority of automotive systems. System integration must be considered when employing a smart sensor network through-out an automobile in a cost effective manner. This paper will cover the module issues associated with sensing, packaging, electronics, communication and system integration.
Technical Paper

Mean Value Engine Modelling of an SI Engine with EGR

Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are simplified, dynamic engine models which are physically based. Such models are useful for control studies, for engine control system analysis and for model based engine control systems. Very few published MVEMs have included the effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this paper is to present a modified MVEM which includes EGR in a physical way. It has been tested using newly developed, very fast manifold pressure, manifold temperature, port and EGR mass flow sensors. Reasonable agreement has been obtained on an experiemental engine, mounted on a dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.