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Technical Paper


Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

US and UK Field Rollover Characteristics

In this study, US and UK accident data were analyzed to identify parameters that may influence rollover propensity to analyze driver injury rate. The US data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS), calendar years 1992 to 1996. The UK pre-roll data was obtained from the national STATS 19 database for 1996, while the injury information was collected from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database. In the US and UK databases, rollovers accounted for about 10% of all crashes with known crash directions. In the US and UK databases, most rollovers occurred when the vehicle was either going straight ahead or turning. The propensity for a rollover was more than 3 times higher when going around a bend than a non-rollover. In the UK, 74% of rollovers occurred on clear days with no high winds and 14% on rainy days with no high winds. In the US, 83% of rollovers took place in non-adverse weather conditions and 10% with rain.
Technical Paper

US and UK Belted Driver Injuries with and without Airbag Deployments - A Field Data Analysis

This study compares the effect of US and European airbag deployments on injury outcomes for belted drivers in frontal crashes. Driver weight, height and seat track position was also examined in relation to those outcomes. This information may help to prioritize and guide the logic for “Smart” airbags. For the study, only airbag-equipped cars were considered. Two accident databases were used: 1) the weighted and unweighted National Accident Sampling System (NASS-CDS) from the US, calendar years 1995 to 1996, and 2) the unweighted Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) from the UK, calendar years 1992 to 1998. The parameters investigated were Injury Severity Score (ISS), Equivalent Test Speed (ETS), occupant weight, occupant height and seat location. For US drivers, the injury rate and occurrence were calculated using weighted data, while for UK drivers, the rate and occurrence were obtained using unweighted data.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Thermal Electric Analysis of Bond Wires Used in Automotive Electronic Modules

Bond wires are used in automotive electronic modules to carry current from external harness to components where flexibility under thermal cyclic loading is very essential between PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and connectors. They are very thin wires (few μm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads during different vehicle operation scenarios. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given boundary conditions without fusing thereby retaining electronic module's functionality. While carrying current, bond wire by virtue of its nature resists electric current flow and generates heat also called as joule heating. Joule heating is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance and if not handled properly can lead to thermal run away conditions.
Technical Paper

The New Wireless Frontier: Home and Vehicle Connectivity

Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle.
Technical Paper

Suppression Technologies for Advanced Air Bags

In May 2000 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the final rule for the Advanced Air Bag regulations effective MY 2004 for vehicles to be sold in the United States. These regulations are in response to the air bag-induced injuries seen in the field, especially to children and short women. Advanced air bags require a vehicle manufacturer to design air bags for a broad array of occupants: 12-month-old, 3-year-old and 6-year-old children, and 5th percentile adult females, as well as 50th percentile adult males with new and more stringent injury criteria. Requirements for minimizing air bag risks include automatically turning off the air bag in the presence of young children or deploying the air bag in a manner much less likely to cause serious or fatal injury to out-of-position occupants. Technologies that disable the air bag in the presence of young children or adults in out-of-position are termed as "suppression technologies.'
Technical Paper

Rollover Stability Index Including Effects of Suspension Design

In this paper a simple yet insightful model to predict vehicle propensity to rollover is proposed, which includes the effects of suspension and tire compliance. The model uses only a few parameters, usually known at the design stage. The lateral accelerations at the rollover threshold predicted by the model are compared to the results of simulations, in which vehicles with the same static stability factor, but different suspension characteristics and payloads are subjected to roll-inducing handling maneuvers. The results of simulations correlate well with the predictions based on the proposed model. Design recommendations for passive suspensions, which would increase rollover stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Door & Seat Side-Impact Airbags for Passenger Van and Sport-Utility Vehicles

Side impact accounts for a significant source of societal harm, injury and death. To address this issue, Europe and US have introduced legislation to be met for the new vehicle certification. In an effort to meet these regulations and the market demand for safety, Automotive manufacturers have significantly improved vehicle side structure integrity and introduced side impact airbags are for added protection. Today, passenger vans, light truck and sport-utility type vehicles are all popular consumer choices in the US. These vehicles differ significantly from passenger cars in many respects and as such need special design considerations for side airbags. Here, MADYMO-3D model of a generic passenger van / Sport-Utility type vehicle is created and correlated to FMVSS-214 side impact crash test. This model is used to evaluate both door and seat mounted side airbag designs in different orientations at standard test impact condition and at a higher speed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

LIN Bus and its Potential for Use in Distributed Multiplex Applications

The increasing features and complexity of today's automotive architectures are becoming increasingly difficult to manage. Each new innovation typically requires additional mechanical actuators and associated electrical controllers. The sheer number of black boxes and wiring are being limited not by features or cost but by the inability to physically assemble them into a vehicle. A new architecture is required which will support the ability to add new features but also enable the Vehicle Assembly Plants to easily assemble and test each subsystem. One such architecture is a distributed multiplex arrangement that reduces the number of wires while enabling flexibility and expandability. Previous versions have had to deal with issues such as noise immunity at high switching currents. The LIN Bus with its low cost and rail-to-rail capability may be the key enabling technology to make the multiplexed architecture a reality.
Technical Paper

Influence of Active Chassis Systems on Vehicle Propensity to Maneuver-Induced Rollovers

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate through simulations the effects of active chassis systems on vehicle propensity to rollover caused by aggressive handling maneuvers. A 16 degree-of-freedom computer model of a full vehicle is used for this purpose. It includes models of active chassis systems and the associated control algorithms, and allows for simulation of vehicle dynamic behavior under large roll angles. The controllable chassis systems considered in this investigation are active rear steer, brake based vehicle stability enhancement system and active anti-roll bar. The maneuvers used in simulation are the double lane change and the fishhook maneuvers with increasing steering amplitudes. The vehicle represents a midsize SUV with a marginal static stability factor of 1.09 and aggressive tires. The results of simulations demonstrate that the uncontrolled vehicle rolls over in both maneuvers when the steering angle is sufficiently large.
Technical Paper

Flawless Manufacturing of RACam through XCP Protocol

RACam [1] is an Active Safety product designed and manufactured at Delphi and is part of their ADAS portfolio. It combines two sensors - Electronically Scanned RADAR and Camera in a single package. RADAR and Vision fusion data is used to realize safety critical systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), Lane Departure Warning (LDW), Lane Keep Assist (LKA), Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) and Automatic Headlight Control (AHL). Figure 1 RACam Front View. With an increase in Active Safety features in the automotive market there is also a corresponding increase in the complexity of the hardware which supports these safety features. Delphi’s hardware design for Active Safety has evolved over the years. In Delphi’s RACam product there are a number of critical components required in order to realize RADAR and Vision in a single package. RACam is also equipped with a fan and heater to improve the operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behavior of Semi-Solid Formed A357-T6 Aluminum

The fundamental relationship between semi-solid processing and microstructure and their effect on the flow characteristics of semi-solid metals have been studied for several years. However, how the process related microstructure influences fatigue properties has not been given the same attention. This study examines the influence of process-related microstructure on the fatigue properties of semi-solid formed A357 alloys. High-solid-fraction (62% solid) and low-solid-fraction (31% and 36% solid) semi-solid formed A357 was tested in axial fatigue with a stress ratio (R) equal to -1. The high solid fraction (HSF) material had better fatigue properties than the low solid fraction (LSF) material. This is attributed to the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms, as related to the fatigue crack initiation features and the strengths of the materials.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing of TPO Instrument Panel Skins

Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) instrument panel skins are in demand in Europe and Asia as a solution to final product disposition environmental concerns. In North America TPO is valued for its durability characteristics (particularly heat and UV aging) and capability for deployment of seamless airbags at cold temperatures. Desiring to have an environmentally “green” system to create the “green” product, Delphi designed a manufacturing process with in-plant closed loop recycling of 100% offal directly back into the skin and the use of waterbased coating system for combating concerns with solvents. Delphi's development of recyclable TPO skin for instrument panels was introduced on 1997 production of Mercedes-Benz M-class. The paper will describe how the systems approach was used in overcoming the challenges involved in closed loop recycling of engineered offal during sheet manufacturing and thermoforming processes and the implementation of waterbased primer and topcoat systems.
Technical Paper

Driver Injuries in US Single-Event Rollovers

The purpose of this paper is to investigate occupant injuries which may be sustained during a single-event crash with known roll mechanism. The data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System/ Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for calendar years 1992 to 1996. The effect of number of rollover turns, roll direction, ejection and belt usage on driver injury responses was analyzed in single-event trip-overs. Trip-overs were chosen for the analysis because they account for over 50% of rollover crashes. The number of rollovers was divided in 3 categories: ¼ to ½ turn, ¾ to 1 turn and above 1 turn. Roll direction was either roll-left or a rollright along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Roll-left represents a roll with the driver side leading, while a roll right is with the right front passenger side leading. In the database used in this study, there were three times more belted drivers than unbelted.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automotive Rollover Sensor

It is estimated that in the United States, nearly one quarter of all fatal automobile accidents involve a vehicle rollover. [1] In order to reduce fatalities and serious injuries, it is desirable to develop a sensing system that can detect an imminent rollover condition with sufficient time to activate occupant safety protection devices. The goals of a Rollover Sensing Module (RSM) are; 1 To accurately estimate vehicle roll and pitch angles 2 To reliably predict in a timely manner an imminent rollover 3 To eliminate false activation of safety devices 4 To function properly during airborne conditions 5 To be as autonomous as possible, not requiring information from other vehicle subsystems.
Technical Paper

Development of a Haptic Braking System as an ACC Vehicle FCW Measure

This work examines the development and implementation of a pulsing brake control system as part of a Forward Collision Warning (FCW) System for an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) prototype vehicle. The brake pulse is a likely candidate to be employed with visual and auditory cues in the event of an imminent collision alert level when the driver is not in ACC mode.