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Technical Paper

Use of CFD Simulation to Predict Fan Power and Airflow Pattern Inside the Climatic Chamber

For A/C and cooling systems development is usual send vehicles to US or Europe for wind tunnel tests, witch is expensive and has a long lead-time. Here in Brazil Delphi has at the Piracicaba Technical Center a chamber equipped with temperature control and chassis dynamometer. There is a up-grade project for it that consist in add ducts with fans inside the chamber that will get air from the chamber, already in the right temperature, accelerate and homogenate the air flow and blow it out direct to the front end of the vehicle. For development purposes may be possible eliminate totally the necessity of sending vehicle abroad. It was then decided to use CFD simulation to predict firstly the required fan power necessary to supply winds until 120 km/h at the front end of the vehicle and secondly predict the airflow pattern inside the chamber, considering chamber inlet air, chamber outlet air, exhaust outlet, duct outlet and flow pattern around the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Thermally-Induced Microstructural Changes in a Three-Way Automotive Catalyst

The use of advanced electron microscopy techniques to characterize both the bulk and near-atomic level microstructural evolution of catalyst materials during different dynamometer/vehicle aging cycles is an integral part of understanding catalyst deactivation. The study described here was undertaken to evaluate thermally-induced microstructural changes which caused the progressive loss of catalyst performance in a three-way automotive catalyst. Several different catalyst processing variables, for example changing the washcoat ceria content, were also evaluated as a function of aging cycle and thermal history. A number of thermally-induced microstructural changes were identified using high resolution electron microscopy techniques that contributed to the deactivation of the catalyst, including sintering of all washcoat constituents, γ-alumina transforming to α-, β-, and δ-alumina, precious metal redistribution, and constituent encapsulation.
Technical Paper

The Solution for Steady State Temperature Distribution in Monolithic Catalytic Converters

This paper presents a simplified thermal model for round catalytic converters in steady state operation. Using this model, the analytic solution for the temperature distribution in the monolithic substrate is obtained. This analytic solution in the substrate is, then, combined with those in the intumescent mat [1] and the metal shell to obtain the temperature profile in the radial direction of the converter except for three unknown temperatures at the three material interfaces, which can be solved using an Excel application program. This analytical temperature solution facilitates the studies of the effects of various design parameters such as the exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas flow rate, substrate cell geometry, converter dimensions, and ambient temperature and flow, etc.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Changes in Ambient and Coolant Radiator Inlet Temperatures and Coolant Flowrate on Specific Dissipation

In this paper, a theoretical model for the calculation of Specific Dissipation (SD) was developed. Based on the model, the effect of ambient and coolant radiator inlet temperatures on SD has been predicted. Results indicate that the effect of ambient and coolant inlet temperature variation on SD is small (less than 2%) when ambient temperature varies between 10 and 50°C and coolant radiator inlet temperature between 60 and 120°C. The effect of coolant flowrate on SD is larger if there is a larger flowrate variation. Experimental results indicate that a 1 % variation at 1.0 L/s will cause about ±0.6% SD variation. Therefore the flowrate should be carefully controlled.
Technical Paper

The Assembly Deformation and Pressure of Stuffed Catalytic Converter Accounting for the Hysteresis Behavior of Pressure vs Density Curve of the Intumescent Mat

Accurately predicting converter assembly deformation and mat pressure is essential in converter packaging design and manufacturing. In stuffing packaging, the annulus between the deformed shell and the catalyst is larger than that between the stuffing cone and the catalyst. As a result, the mat expands and undergoes unloading process. Tests show that the mat exhibits different loading and unloading characteristics. Using such a hysteresis mat pressure vs density curve in finite element analysis, the computed converter deformations closely agree with test data. Conversly, neglecting the mat hysteresis behavior may overestimate the deformation and pressure by a factor of three to four.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Paradigm Shift in Electric Supply for Transportation

Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW have been jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC-based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Development Update

Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW are jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, by supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness. Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW were successful in demonstrating an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology in February, 2001.
Journal Article

Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
Technical Paper

Powertrains of the Future: Reducing the Impact of Transportation on the Environment

Tomorrow's winning powertrain solutions reside in those technology combinations providing optimized propulsion systems with zero emissions and no cost or performance penalty compared with today's vehicles. The recent Kyoto Protocol for CO2 reduction and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) thrust for zero emission vehicles along with the European Regulatory community, motivate car manufacturers to adopt new light body structures with low aerodynamic drag coefficients, low-rolling resistance and the highest efficiency powertrains. The environmental equation expresses car manufacturers aptitude and desire to create zero emission vehicles at acceptable levels of performance unlike limited range electrical powered vehicle products. The cheapest solution to the environmental equation remains the conventional internal combustion engine ($30 to $50 per kW).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Mean Value Engine Modelling of an SI Engine with EGR

Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are simplified, dynamic engine models which are physically based. Such models are useful for control studies, for engine control system analysis and for model based engine control systems. Very few published MVEMs have included the effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this paper is to present a modified MVEM which includes EGR in a physical way. It has been tested using newly developed, very fast manifold pressure, manifold temperature, port and EGR mass flow sensors. Reasonable agreement has been obtained on an experiemental engine, mounted on a dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control with a Switching Oxygen Sensor

In this paper we discuss in detail an algorithm that addresses cylinder-to-cylinder imbalance issues. Maintaining even equivalence-ratio (ϕ) control across all the cylinders of an engine is confounded by imbalances which include fuel-injector flow variations, fresh-air intake maldistribution and uneven distribution of Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR). Moreover, in markets that are growing increasingly cost conscious, with ever tightening emissions regulations, correcting for such mismatches must not only be done, but done at little or no additional cost. To address this challenge, we developed an Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC) algorithm that estimates each cylinder's individual ϕ and then compensates to correct for any imbalance using only existing production hardware. Prior work in this area exists1,2, yet all disclosed production-intent work was performed using wide-range oxygen sensors, representing cost increases.
Technical Paper

Impact of Alkali Metals on the Performance and Mechanical Properties of NOx Adsorber Catalysts

Performance of two types of NOx adsorber catalysts, one based on Ba and the other based on Ba with alkali metals, was compared fresh and after thermal aging. Incorporation of sodium(Na), potassium(K) and cesium(Cs) into NOx adsorber washcoat containing barium significantly increases the NOx conversions in the temperature range of 350-600°C over that of the alkali metal free NOx adsorber catalysts. NOx performance benefit and HC performance penalty were observed on both engine dynamometer and vehicle tests for the “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts. “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts also demonstrate superior sulfur resistance with better NOx performance after repeated sulfur poisonings and desulfations over the “Ba based” NOx adsorber catalysts.
Journal Article

Ignition Systems for Spray-Guided Stratified Combustion

The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
Technical Paper

Identification and Elimination of Steering Systems Squawk Noise

The problem being investigated involves a noise-quality issue on a power steering application, when a sudden change of steering wheel angle generates an unwanted steering system noise or “Squawk.” This phenomenon is mostly observed during parking maneuvers, especially at lock positions and when the hydraulic fluid reaches a critical temperature on the specific application. The objective of the work to solve this noise-quality issue was to first identify the cause and then eliminate the Squawk noise. There were several constraints: No change could be made in the properties or type of hydraulic fluid used due to specification requirements; Steering wheel valve torsion bar characteristic (torque vs. angle) needed to be maintained within specification for ride and handling purposes; and, In addition to the mentioned constraints, a high capability of noise elimination generated by the production tolerances and dispersion has been considered.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Effects on Localization and Sound Perception in a Small Acoustic Space

As compared to home audio, the automobile has a different spatial and spectral distribution of sound. This can cause stereo images to blur or shift due to conflicting localization cues. The impact of interaural time and level differences is discussed, along with frequency-selective pinna and head cues. Review of the literature shows that our poorest localization is for mid frequencies (∼2kHz). Yet in an automobile, low frequencies are severely relocated with a minimum effect on fidelity. It is suggested this is because middle frequencies dominate the perception and localization of sound. Therefore, some high frequency information might also be relocated.
Journal Article

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single-cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Globalization of the Design for Manufacturability/Assembly Process within the Automotive Wiring Assembly Business

Automotive wiring assembly design and manufacturing has evolved from a locally based business to a global business. It is common today to engineer the design of a wiring assembly in one region of the world, to manufacture it in a second region, and to assemble it into the vehicle in a third region. This creates a need for global collaboration, training and communications. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) is a tool that can aid in this, in developing common processes globally, and reducing the cost and design complexity of the product in the early design stages. To develop a global DFM process, an organization must develop and implement a strategy. This paper will review the approach that an automotive wiring assembly supplier adopted. It will enumerate the benefits of developing a global Design for Manufacturability process, selecting a champion, and using a twelve-step plan to integrate DFM into each region.