Refine Your Search


Search Results

Technical Paper

Using the Six Sigma Methodology for Process Variation Reduction

This paper is about the use of the Six Sigma Methodology, to solve variation problems in the manufacture area, at one of the Delphi Automotive Systems unit that manufacturer electrical harness. The DMAIC framework was followed, the improvements were done, eliminating the rots causes, and the use of Six Sigma methodology, was showed very efficient in solve problems. The methodology power, is in using a structured frame work, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control), completing by quality quality tools (Pareto Chart, Five Why's, Cause and Effect Diagram) and statistical analyses, for example: variance analyses, hypotheses tests and Design of Experiments.
Technical Paper


Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

Thermal Electric Analysis of Bond Wires Used in Automotive Electronic Modules

Bond wires are used in automotive electronic modules to carry current from external harness to components where flexibility under thermal cyclic loading is very essential between PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and connectors. They are very thin wires (few μm) made up of gold, aluminum or copper and have to undergo mechanical reliability to withstand extreme mechanical and thermal loads during different vehicle operation scenarios. Thermal reliability of bond wire is to make sure that it can withstand prescribed electric current under given boundary conditions without fusing thereby retaining electronic module's functionality. While carrying current, bond wire by virtue of its nature resists electric current flow and generates heat also called as joule heating. Joule heating is proportional to current flow and electrical resistance and if not handled properly can lead to thermal run away conditions.
Technical Paper

The Solution for Steady State Temperature Distribution in Monolithic Catalytic Converters

This paper presents a simplified thermal model for round catalytic converters in steady state operation. Using this model, the analytic solution for the temperature distribution in the monolithic substrate is obtained. This analytic solution in the substrate is, then, combined with those in the intumescent mat [1] and the metal shell to obtain the temperature profile in the radial direction of the converter except for three unknown temperatures at the three material interfaces, which can be solved using an Excel application program. This analytical temperature solution facilitates the studies of the effects of various design parameters such as the exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas flow rate, substrate cell geometry, converter dimensions, and ambient temperature and flow, etc.
Technical Paper

Rheocasting of Semi-Solid A357 Aluminum

The most popular aluminum alloys for semi-solid automotive components are A356 and A357. The density of rheocast semi-solid A357 is higher than die cast A357 and allows for both T5 and T6 heat treatment. The mechanical properties of rheocast semi-solid A357 was found to be more dependent upon the heat treat schedule and casting soundness than by the solid content of the semi-solid slurry or the globule shape.
Technical Paper

Reliability of Resonant Micromachined Sensors and Actuators

There are an increasing number of applications for resonant micromachines. Accelerometers, angular rate sensors, voltage controlled oscillators, pressure and chemical sensors have been demonstrated using this technology. Several of these devices are employed in vehicles. Vibrating devices have been made from silicon, quartz, GaAs, nickel and aluminum. Resonant microsystems are in constant motion and so present new challenges in the area of reliability for vehicular applications. The impact of temperature extremes, cyclic fatigue, stiction, thermal and mechanical shock on resonant device performance is covered.
Technical Paper

Rapid Algorithm Development Tools Applied to Engine Management Systems

Intense competition in the automotive industry requires continuous reduction in innovation cycle time, even as corporations are downsizing and system complexity is increasing. Subsequently, the application of recently introduced Rapid Algorithm Development (RAD) tools has facilitated significant advances in the development of embedded control systems. The RAD steps include system modeling, control algorithm design, simulation analysis, automated calibration design, and vehicle implementation through automatic code generation. The application of RAD tools and the associated benefits are described, specifically in the context of Engine Management Systems (EMS). Such benefits include significant reductions in development cycle time, open architecture, automated calibration, and information reuse.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oxygen Sensor

Optimization of the mechanical aspects of a heated conical oxygen sensor for desired performances, such as low heater power, good poison resistance, fast light-off, and broad temperature range, etc. was achieved with computer modeling. CFD analysis was used to model the flow field in and around a sensor in an exhaust pipe to predict the convection coefficients, poisoning, and switching time. Heat transfer analysis coupled with electrical heating was applied to predict temperature and light-off time. Results of the optimization are illustrated, with good agreements between modeling and testing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of Brake Fluid Temperature Rise During Braking and Heat Soaking

Long repetitive braking, such as one which occurs during a mountain descent, will result in a brake fluid temperature rise and may cause brake fluid vaporization. This may be a concern particularly for passenger cars equipped with aluminum calipers and with a limited air flow to the wheel brake systems. This paper describes the computer modeling techniques to predict the brake fluid temperature rise as well as other brake component temperatures during braking and heat soaking. Numerical results are compared to the measured vehicle data and the effects of relevant brake system parameters on the fluid temperature are investigated. The techniques developed in this study will help brake engineers to build a safer brake system and reduce the extensive vehicle tests currently required.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding: An Exploratory Study towards Continuous Improvement on Stainless Steel Welding Joints

The utilization of Laser welding process has increased during last years in several areas of industry, due to many benefits that can be achieved with this technology, such as: flexibility, productivity and quality. Thus, the optimization of Laser welding processes has been considered as a “green field” to be explored by Laser manufacturers, automation companies and process/project engineers. Nowadays there are few researches that provide a roadmap for Laser welding processes improvement that approaches both the aspects and characteristics applied to evaluate the Laser weld application performance. Therefore, this paper has per its main purpose through an exploratory study to provide parameters toward continuous improvement of Laser welding process considering both types of Lasers: Laser spot weld and Laser seam weld of stainless steel joints, thus this work may be considered as theoretical and practical reference to be applied by people involved with Laser welding applications.
Technical Paper

Instrument Panel Skin Manufactured with 100% Recycled TPO Material

Desiring to push thermoplastic poly-olefin (TPO) technology to its fullest limits and to confirm our position as the leader in the manufacturing of environmentally friendly TPO instrument panels, we have designed a process to manufacture 100% recycled instrument panel skins. This closed-loop process begins with extruding 100% recycled TPO flake into sheet stock to be painted and vacuum formed. The painted sheet is vacuum formed and the offal is ground into regrind flake, ready to be extruded again, thus completing the closed-loop process. This paper will describe a 100% closed loop recycling process for TPO instrument panels, discuss the intense validation process for recycled material and prove the robustness and durability of this interior solution.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control with a Switching Oxygen Sensor

In this paper we discuss in detail an algorithm that addresses cylinder-to-cylinder imbalance issues. Maintaining even equivalence-ratio (ϕ) control across all the cylinders of an engine is confounded by imbalances which include fuel-injector flow variations, fresh-air intake maldistribution and uneven distribution of Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR). Moreover, in markets that are growing increasingly cost conscious, with ever tightening emissions regulations, correcting for such mismatches must not only be done, but done at little or no additional cost. To address this challenge, we developed an Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC) algorithm that estimates each cylinder's individual ϕ and then compensates to correct for any imbalance using only existing production hardware. Prior work in this area exists1,2, yet all disclosed production-intent work was performed using wide-range oxygen sensors, representing cost increases.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Lead-Free Solder for Automotive Electronics

Lead-free solders for electronics have been actively pursued since the early 1990's here and abroad for environmental, legislative, and competitive reasons. The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS-US)1, the International Tin Research Institute (ITRI-UK)2, Swedish Institute of Production Engineering Research (IVF-Sweden)3, Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging (JIEP Japan)4, Improved Design Life and Environmentally Aware Manufacture of Electronics Assemblies by Lead-free Soldering (IDEALS-Europe)5, and, more recently, the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI-US)6 have been aggressively seeking lead-free solutions The automotive industry has some unique requirements that demand extensive testing of new materials and processes prior to implementation. The specific steps taken at Delphi Automotive Systems with lead-free solder will be described along with the lessons learned along the way.
Technical Paper

Impact of Alkali Metals on the Performance and Mechanical Properties of NOx Adsorber Catalysts

Performance of two types of NOx adsorber catalysts, one based on Ba and the other based on Ba with alkali metals, was compared fresh and after thermal aging. Incorporation of sodium(Na), potassium(K) and cesium(Cs) into NOx adsorber washcoat containing barium significantly increases the NOx conversions in the temperature range of 350-600°C over that of the alkali metal free NOx adsorber catalysts. NOx performance benefit and HC performance penalty were observed on both engine dynamometer and vehicle tests for the “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts. “Ba+alkali metals” NOx adsorber catalysts also demonstrate superior sulfur resistance with better NOx performance after repeated sulfur poisonings and desulfations over the “Ba based” NOx adsorber catalysts.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behavior of Semi-Solid Formed A357-T6 Aluminum

The fundamental relationship between semi-solid processing and microstructure and their effect on the flow characteristics of semi-solid metals have been studied for several years. However, how the process related microstructure influences fatigue properties has not been given the same attention. This study examines the influence of process-related microstructure on the fatigue properties of semi-solid formed A357 alloys. High-solid-fraction (62% solid) and low-solid-fraction (31% and 36% solid) semi-solid formed A357 was tested in axial fatigue with a stress ratio (R) equal to -1. The high solid fraction (HSF) material had better fatigue properties than the low solid fraction (LSF) material. This is attributed to the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms, as related to the fatigue crack initiation features and the strengths of the materials.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Propulsion Drive System Technologies for Hybrid Vehicles

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of high risk, high potential technologies for hybrid vehicle drive applications and investigate potential solutions for the technical risk items associated with these technologies. The study consisted of the design, build, and test of different types of electric machines to understand their performance, efficiency, and manufacturability to develop hybrid vehicles with cost and performance similar to the present day IC engine based vehicles, but with lower emissions and better fuel economy. Machine technologies examined include synchronous reluctance, permanent magnet, and switched reluctance. Test data for various machine technologies is presented along with a discussion of the technical risk associated with each technology.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing of TPO Instrument Panel Skins

Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) instrument panel skins are in demand in Europe and Asia as a solution to final product disposition environmental concerns. In North America TPO is valued for its durability characteristics (particularly heat and UV aging) and capability for deployment of seamless airbags at cold temperatures. Desiring to have an environmentally “green” system to create the “green” product, Delphi designed a manufacturing process with in-plant closed loop recycling of 100% offal directly back into the skin and the use of waterbased coating system for combating concerns with solvents. Delphi's development of recyclable TPO skin for instrument panels was introduced on 1997 production of Mercedes-Benz M-class. The paper will describe how the systems approach was used in overcoming the challenges involved in closed loop recycling of engineered offal during sheet manufacturing and thermoforming processes and the implementation of waterbased primer and topcoat systems.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Tool for Multilayer Stack Assemblies

The development of an analytical model for multilayer stack subjected to temperature change is demonstrated here. Thin continuous layers of materials bonded together deform as a plate due to their differing coefficients of thermal expansion upon subjecting the bonded materials to the change in temperature. Applications of such structures can be found in the electronics industry (the study of warpage issues in printed circuit boards) or in the aerospace industry as (the study of laminated thin sheets used as skin structures for load bearing members such as wings and fuselage). In automotive electronics, critical high-power packages (IGBT, Power FETs) include several layers of widely differing materials (aluminum, solder, copper, ceramics) subjected to wide temperature cyclic ranges. Modeling of such structures by using three-dimensional finite element methods is usually time consuming and may not exactly predict the inter-laminar strains.
Technical Paper

Development of a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Electrical Model for Optimum NOx Removal Performance

A double dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by an alternating voltage is a relatively simple approach to promote oxidation of NO to NO2 for subsequent reduction in a catalyst bed. The chemical performance of such a non-thermal plasma reactor is determined by its current and electric field behavior in the gap, and by the fraction of the current carried by electrons, because the key reactants which initiate the NO oxidation and accompanying chemical changes are produced there, mostly by electron impact. We have tried to determine by models and experiments the bounds on performance of double dielectric barrier reactors and guidelines for optimization. Models reported here predict chemical results from time-resolved applied voltage and series sense capacitor data.
Technical Paper

Determination of Viscoelastic Core Material Properties Using Sandwich Beam Theory and Modal Experiments

Damping material for automotive structures is often quantified in terms of composite loss factor or damping ratio by using ASTM/SAE beam or modal tests. Simplified expressions have also been used to estimate certain material properties. However, none of these tests provide any information on the properties of viscoelastic core material such as rubber or adhesive in practical structures. To overcome this deficiency, a refined estimation procedure is proposed. A new sandwich beam model has been developed which describes all layers of an arbitrarily applied damping patch. By using both analytical predictions and modal experiments on a cantilever beam, spectrally-varying loss factor and shear modulus of the unknown core are determined.