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Technical Paper

Unified Control of Brake- and Steer-by-Wire Systems Using Optimal Control Allocation Methods

2006-04-03
2006-01-0924
A new optimal control strategy for dealing with braking actuator failures in a vehicle equipped with a brake-by-wire and steer-by- wire system is described. The main objective of the control algorithm during the failure mode is to redistribute the control tasks to the functioning actuators, so that the vehicle performance remains as close as possible to the desired performance in spite of a failure. The desired motion of the vehicle in the yaw plane is determined using driver steering and braking inputs along with vehicle speed. For the purpose of synthesizing the control algorithm, a non-linear vehicle model is developed, which describes the vehicle dynamics in the yaw plane in both linear and non-linear ranges of handling. A control allocation algorithm determines the control inputs that minimize the difference between the desired and actual vehicle motions, while satisfying all actuator constraints.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Switched Reluctance Motor Technology for Electro-Mechanical Brake Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0296
Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are emerging as a new approach to enhance brake system features as well as braking performance. This paper takes a fresh look at the switched reluctance (SR) drive as a possible prime mover technology for EMB applications. The switched reluctance motor has attractive potential, in view of its robustness, dynamic bandwidth and fault tolerance. An overall assessment of the approach is made based on bench performance of a prototype EMB caliper with an SR drive executing typical braking patterns. It is shown that the SR motor can provide the required overall brake actuator performance. Various implementation options are examined to lower cost, with particular focus on electronic design, control algorithms and motor position sensing.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Sensing and Safety Overview

2004-03-08
2004-01-0342
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
Technical Paper

Performance, Robustness, and Durability of an Automatic Brake System for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control

2004-03-08
2004-01-0255
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) technology is presently emerging in the automotive market as a convenience function intended to reduce driver workload. It allows the host vehicle to maintain a set speed and distance from preceding vehicles by a forward object detection sensor. The forward object detection sensor is the focal point of the ACC control system, which determines and regulates vehicle acceleration and deceleration through a powertrain torque control system and an automatic brake control system. This paper presents a design of an automatic braking system that utilizes a microprocessor-controlled brake hydraulic modulator. The alternatively qualified automatic braking means is reviewed first. The product level requirements of the performance, robustness, and durability for an automatic brake system are addressed. A brief overview of the presented system architecture is described.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of Friction Materials and the Effect on Brake System Stability

2003-05-05
2003-01-1619
This study utilizes complex eigenvalue analysis to investigate the sensitivity of dynamic system stability to the mechanical properties of the friction material. The friction material is modeled as a transverse isotropic material exhibiting different in-plane and out-of-plane moduli. Parametric studies are performed to evaluate system stability under various combinations of these properties. The initial analysis results show good correlation with laboratory testing for both squeal frequency and mode shape. Additional laboratory testing reveals a change in friction material can have a significant effect on the noise performance of a system. Analysis was performed with corresponding friction materials and the results were directionally consistent. This helped to validate the analysis model and establish confidence in the analysis results. In general, for the specific system considered, decreasing both in-plane and out-of-plane moduli encouraged system stability.
Technical Paper

Influence of Chassis Characteristics on Sustained Roll, Heave and Yaw Oscillations in Dynamic Rollover Testing

2005-04-11
2005-01-0398
In dynamic rollover tests many vehicles experience sustained body roll oscillations during a portion of road edge recovery maneuver, in which constant steering angle is maintained. In this paper, qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given and it is analyzed using simplified models. It is found that the primary root cause of these oscillations is coupling occurring between the vehicle roll, heave and subsequently yaw modes resulting from suspension jacking forces. These forces cause vertical (heave) motions of vehicle body, which in turn affect tire normal and subsequently lateral forces, influencing yaw response of vehicle. As a result, sustained roll, heave and yaw oscillations occur during essentially a steady-state portion of maneuver. Analysis and simulations are used to assess the influence of several chassis characteristics on the self-excited oscillations. The results provide important insights, which may influence suspension design.
Technical Paper

Improving the Reliability of Squeak & Rattle Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2539
The laboratory test method commonly known as “random vibration” is almost always used for Squeak & Rattle testing in today's automotive applications due to its obvious advantages: the convenience in simulating the real road input, the relatively low cost, and efficiency in obtaining the desired test results. Typically, Loudness N10 is used to evaluate the Squeak & Rattle (S&R) performance. However, due to the nature of random distribution of the excitation input, the repeatability of the loudness N10 measurements may vary significantly. This variation imposes a significant challenge when one is searching for a fine design improvement solution in minimizing S&R noise, such as a six-sigma study. This study intends to investigate (1) the range of the variations of random vibration control method as an excitation input with a given PSD, (2) the possibility of using an alternate control method (“time-history replication”) to produce the vibration of a given PSD for a S&R evaluation.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Design Considerations for EHB Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0324
Brake performance can be divided into two distinct classes: base brake performance and controlled brake performance. A base brake event can be described as a normal or typical stop in which the driver maintains the vehicle in its intended direction at a controlled deceleration level that does not closely approach wheel lock. All other braking events where additional intervention may be necessary, such as wheel brake pressure control to prevent lock-up, application of a wheel brake to transfer torque across an open differential, or application of an induced torque to one or two selected wheels to correct an under- or oversteering condition, may be classified as controlled brake performance. Statistics from the field indicate the majority of braking events stem from base brake applications and as such can be classified as the single most important function.
Technical Paper

Hill Hold Moding

2005-04-11
2005-01-0786
A typical problem that is encountered by drivers of vehicles with manual transmissions is rollback on an incline. This occurs when the driver is trying to coordinate the release of the brake pedal with the release of the clutch pedal and application of the accelerator all at the same time. If not done in harmony, the vehicle will roll down the incline. While the Hill Hold function is a highly desirable feature in manual transmission vehicles, it also enhances the driving experience in automatic transmission vehicles equipped with hybrid powertrains. The Hill Hold feature supports the Stop and Go performance associated with a hybrid powertrain by holding the vehicle on an incline and preventing undesired motion. The objective of this paper is to describe the implementation of the Hill Hold feature using an electric and / or a hydraulic brake control system. The paper describes the moding states in implementing the Hill Hold function at various levels of design complexity.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Trade-Off of Handling Stability and Responsiveness with Advanced Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0812
Advanced chassis control systems enable a vehicle to achieve new levels of performance in handling stability and responsiveness. In recent work by NHTSA and others, the performance of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems has been studied with focus on yaw stability and roll stability of vehicles on high friction surfaces. However, it is recognized that vehicle handling responsiveness is also an important aspect that should be maintained. This paper explores the trade-offs between yaw rate, side slip, and roll motions of a vehicle, and their relationships to handling stability and handling responsiveness. This paper further describes how various control systems are able to manage these motions. The paper also discusses methods to assess vehicle stability and responsiveness using specific maneuvers and measurements, and it includes data from vehicle tests on a slippery surface.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Control of Brake- and Steer-by-Wire Systems During Brake Actuator Failure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0923
In this paper a method of mitigating the consequences of potential brake actuator failure in vehicles with brake-by-wire (BBW) and possibly with steer-by-wire (SBW) systems is described. The proposed control algorithm is based on rules derived from general principles of vehicle dynamics. When a failure of one actuator is detected, the algorithm redistributes the braking forces among the remaining actuators in such a way that the desired deceleration of vehicle is followed as closely as possible, while the magnitude and the rate of change of the yaw moment caused by asymmetric braking are properly managed. When vehicle is equipped with BBW system only, or when the desired deceleration can be obtained by redistributing of braking forces, without generating an undesired yaw moment, no steering correction is used. Otherwise, a combination of brake force redistribution and steering correction (to counter the yaw moment generated by non-symmetric braking) is applied.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Platform for Diagnostic Development of a Controlled Chassis System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1058
This paper discusses the development and application of a closed-loop co-simulation platform for a controlled chassis system. The platform is comprised of several software packages, including CarSim®(MSC Corporation), AmeSim®(ImaGine Software Corporation), MATLAB®/SIMULINK®(Mathworks Corporation). The platform provides the ability to quickly evaluate enhancements to existing algorithms and to evaluate new control or diagnostic concepts, making it a rapid medium for development, testing and validation. The co-simulation platform was configured with real vehicle calibration data and used to test the validity/limitations of a simple model-based sensor diagnostics strategy. Using this approach, it was possible to quickly check for performance issues and consider needed corrections or enhancements without incurring the time and cost burden associated with in-vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Analysis Incorporating Contact Conditions and Other Nonlinear Effects

2003-10-19
2003-01-3343
A squeal analysis on a front disc brake is presented here utilizing the new complex eigenvalue capability in ABAQUS/Standard. As opposed to the direct matrix input approach that requires users to tailor the friction coupling matrix, this method uses nonlinear static analyses to calculate the friction coupling prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction. As a result, the effect of non-uniform contact pressure and other nonlinear effects are incorporated. Friction damping is used to reduce over-predictions and the velocity dependent friction coefficient is defined to contribute negative damping. Complex eigenvalue predictions of the example cases show very good correlation with test data for a wide range of frequencies. Finally, the participation of rotor tangential modes is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking Performance and Hydraulic Brake Pressure Estimation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1061
Anti-Lock Brake Systems use hydraulic valves to control brake pressure and ultimately, wheel slip. The difference in pressure across these hydraulic valves affects their performance. The control of these valves can be improved if the pressure difference is known and the valve control altered accordingly. In practice, the delta- pressure is estimated. Estimating the wheel brake pressure introduces an error into the control structure of the system, i.e. the difference between the actual wheel brake pressure and the estimated wheel brake pressure. The effect of this error was investigated at the vehicle level via simulation, using stopping distance and vehicle yaw rate as evaluation criteria. Even with large errors in the brake pressure estimate, it was found that the vehicle performance was largely unaffected.
Technical Paper

A System Approach to the Drag Performance of Disc Brake Caliper

2003-10-19
2003-01-3300
Among the performance concerns in brake design, drag and fluid displacement are getting more attention in the requirement definition. High drag not only affects fuel efficiency and lining life, it is also a contributing factor to rotor thickness variation and brake pulsation. In this paper, a system approach to drag performance of a disc brake caliper is presented. A one-dimensional simulation model, which considers all the significant factors, including lining stiffness and hysteresis, housing stiffness, seal/groove characteristic, and stick-slide behavior between the seal and piston, is developed to capture the interactive impact of each parameter to caliper drag performance. The system model is validated with experimental measurements for caliper fluid displacement and piston retraction. A parameter study is then conducted to investigate the component interactive impact to the drag performance.
Technical Paper

A Study on Low Frequency Drum Brake Squeal

2004-10-10
2004-01-2787
Low frequency drum brake squeal is often very intense and can cause high levels of customer complaints. During a noise event, vehicle framework and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during a brake application. This paper illustrates the experimental and analytical studies on a low frequency drum brake squeal problem that caused high warranty cost. First the environmental condition was identified and noise was reproduced. Vehicle tests were performed and operating deflection shapes were acquired. The sensitivity of the lining material to different environmental conditions was investigated. With the use of complex eigenvalue method, models were constructed to obtain further understanding of the phenomena. Finally, the squeal mechanism of a drum brake system is discussed and various solution techniques for low frequency drum brake noise are evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Real-Time Prognosis of Safety-Critical Vehicle Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1497
The paper describes the development of a vehicle stability indicator based on the correlation between various current vehicle chassis sensors such as hand wheel angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. In general, there is a correlation between various pairs of sensor signals when the vehicle operation is linear and stable and a lack of correlation when the vehicle is becoming unstable or operating in a nonlinear region. The paper outlines one potential embodiment of the technology that makes use of the Mahalanobis distance metric to assess the degree of correlation among the sensor signals. With this approach a single scalar metric provides an accurate indication of vehicle stability.
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