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Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Oxygen in Preventing Embrittlement in Air Bag Inflators Containing Gaseous Hydrogen

2006-04-03
2006-01-1188
This study examines the effectiveness of gaseous oxygen at preventing embrittlement in steel associated with exposure to gaseous hydrogen under static loading conditions. Notched C-ring samples machined from 4340 steel and heat treated to HRC 51-53 were used to test the neutrality of an oxygen-hydrogen gas mixture similar to that which may be used as a generant in an air bag inflator. The 29 percent oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of the gas mixture was found to be sufficient to protect the steel from hydrogen embrittlement under static loading conditions. This would indicate that any steel with a hardness of HRC 51 or lower would be safe to use in gas-based air bag inflators containing a oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of 29 percent or higher.
Technical Paper

Spray Pattern Recognition for Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injectors Using CFD Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1488
This paper describes a correlation study on fuel spray pattern recognition of multi-hole injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines. Spray pattern is characterized by patternation length, which represents the distance of maximum droplet concentration from the axis of the injector. Five fuel injectors with different numbers and sizes of nozzle holes were considered in this study. Experimental data and CFD modeling results were used separately to develop regression models for spray patternation. These regressions predicted the influence of a number of injector operating and design parameters, including injection system operating pressure, valve lift, injector hole length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) and the orientation of the injector hole. The regression correlations provided a good fit with both experimental and CFD spray simulation results. Thus CFD offers a good complement to experimental validation during development efforts to meet a desired injector spray pattern.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Sensing and Safety Overview

2004-03-08
2004-01-0342
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
Technical Paper

Improving the Reliability of Squeak & Rattle Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2539
The laboratory test method commonly known as “random vibration” is almost always used for Squeak & Rattle testing in today's automotive applications due to its obvious advantages: the convenience in simulating the real road input, the relatively low cost, and efficiency in obtaining the desired test results. Typically, Loudness N10 is used to evaluate the Squeak & Rattle (S&R) performance. However, due to the nature of random distribution of the excitation input, the repeatability of the loudness N10 measurements may vary significantly. This variation imposes a significant challenge when one is searching for a fine design improvement solution in minimizing S&R noise, such as a six-sigma study. This study intends to investigate (1) the range of the variations of random vibration control method as an excitation input with a given PSD, (2) the possibility of using an alternate control method (“time-history replication”) to produce the vibration of a given PSD for a S&R evaluation.
Technical Paper

Improving Cam Phaser Performance Using Robust Engineering Techniques

2005-10-24
2005-01-3903
This paper describes a robust engineering DOE (design of experiment) completed by hydraulic simulation of a Variable Cam Phaser System based on an L4 IC engine. The robust engineering study focused on the high temperature and low speed portions of overall engine operating conditions where the cam phase rates are slow and oscillation is high. The analysis included a preliminary DOE with multiple noise variables used as the control factors in order to quantify and compound the factors into just two noise levels; best and worst conditions. Following the noise DOE, a larger DOE study was completed with 16 control variables including phaser, oil control valve and various engine parameters. It was run at 3 engine rpm (signal levels), 2 noise levels, and was analyzed for 3 responses (advancing rate, retarding rate, and oscillation amplitude while holding an intermediate position). These DOE experiments determined potential gains for each design proposal.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Journal Article

Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning Systems Utilizing Pneumatic Variable Compressors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0539
Air Conditioning systems with reheat reduction based for energy efficiency have generally been implemented with either electronic variable compressors through active stroke control or with fixed displacement compressors through modifying the cycling set point. The present work demonstrates a unique concept of achieving energy efficiency via cycling a pneumatic variable compressor at elevated set points. The energy efficiency of such a system approaches that of an electronic variable but significantly higher than that of a fixed displacement compressor system. The cost of the system, on the other hand, is substantially lower than that of an electronic compressor. Secondary benefits include a softer start than with a fixed compressor and a considerably simpler control scheme than that required by an electronic variable compressor.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

2004-10-25
2004-01-3062
The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

2-step Variable Valve Actuation: System Optimization and Integration on an SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0040
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
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