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Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

2008-04-14
2008-01-0630
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model for HIL Test Bench

2009-04-20
2009-01-1139
This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software, with a focus on a closed-loop vehicle drive-train model incorporating a detailed automatic transmission plant dynamics model developed for certain applications. Specifically, this paper presents the closed-loop integration of a 6-speed automatic transmission model developed for our HIL transmission controller and algorithm test bench (Opal-RT TestDrive based). The model validation, integration and its application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Experimental Investigation of Pd-Based Light-Off Catalysts

2005-10-24
2005-01-3848
Close-coupled or manifold catalysts have been extensively employed to reduce emissions during cold start by achieving quick catalyst light-off. These catalysts must have good thermal durability, high intrinsic light-off activity and high HC/CO/NOx conversions at high temperature and flow conditions. A number of studies have been dedicated to engine control, manifold design and converter optimization to reduce cold start emissions. The current paper focuses on the effect of catalyst design parameters and their performance response to different engine operating conditions. Key design parameters such as catalyst formulation (CeO2 vs. non CeO2), precious metal loading and composition (Pd vs. Pd/Rh), washcoat loading, catalyst thermal mass, substrate properties and key application (in use) parameters such as catalyst aging, exhaust A/F ratio, A/F ratio modulation, exhaust temperature, temperature rise rate and exhaust flow rate were studied on engine dynamometers in a systematic manner.
Technical Paper

An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1504
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines. In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Optimization System for Airbag Design and Modeling by Finite Element Analysis

2003-03-03
2003-01-0506
An integrated optimization system has been developed to combine optimization algorithms with Finite Element Analysis for airbag design. A number of industry standard software packages are employed to work in coherence to complete the optimization procedure automatically with minimal user intervention. The system can be easily tailored to fit multiple performance requirements and various design constraints for different airbag systems. Compared with the commonly used Design of Experiment (DOE) method, time and computer resources requirements are greatly curtailed. The integrated optimization system was successfully used in single-chamber and dual-chamber airbag optimizations. The results proved the effectiveness of the system and demonstrated its capability in product design.
Journal Article

Analysis of E-85 Fuel for Formic, Acetic, Propionic, Butyric, Glycolic and Citric Acids using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

2008-10-06
2008-01-2509
An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method to measure the concentration of six organic acids in E-85 fuel has been developed. A three point calibration curve is established using standard solutions of the following organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid and citric acid. An internal standard (maleic acid) is used to monitor HPLC system suitability and peak retention time stability. The method utilizes UV detection at 210 nm to detect and quantify the levels of each acid in E-85 fuel. Test results from nine commercially available E-85 fuel samples are reported. Analytical method validation was achieved by performing and confirming system suitability or injection repeatability (percent relative standard deviation ≤ 3%), calibration curve linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999), analysis repeatability (standard deviation < 1 mg/L) and recovery (percent recovery 91 - 102%).
Technical Paper

Analytical Design of Cockpit Modules for Safety and Comfort

2004-03-08
2004-01-1481
This paper reviews the state of the art on analytical design of cockpit modules in two most crucial performance categories: safety and comfort. On safety, applications of finite element analysis (FEA) for achieving robust designs that meet FMVSS 201, 208 and 214 requirements and score top frontal and side NCAP star-ratings are presented. On comfort, focus is placed on Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. Cutting-edge analytical tools for Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) avoidance and passenger compartment noise reduction are demonstrated. Most of the analytical results shown in this paper are based on the development work of a real-life application program. Correlations between the analytical results and physical test results are included. Examples of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis for climate control are also included. At the end, the road map toward 100 percent virtual prototyping and validation is presented.
Technical Paper

Analytical Predictions and Correlation With Physical Tests for Potential Buzz, Squeak, and Rattle Regions in a Cockpit Assembly

2004-03-08
2004-01-0393
The perceived interior noise has been one of the major driving factors in the design of automotive interior assemblies. Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) issues are one of the major contributors toward the perceived quality in a vehicle. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing. In order to reduce the product development cycle and minimize the number of costly hardware builds, however, one must rely on engineering analysis and simulation upfront in the design cycle. In this paper, an analytical and experimental study to identify potential BSR locations in a cockpit assembly is presented. The analytical investigation utilizes a novel and practical methodology, implemented in the software tool Nhance.BSR, for identification and ranking of potential BSR issues. The emphasis here is to evaluate the software for the BSR predictions and the identification of modeling issues, rather than to evaluate the cockpit design itself for BSR issues.
Technical Paper

Application of Robust Engineering Methods to Improve ECU Software Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-1600
Robust Engineering techniques developed by Taguchi have traditionally applied to the optimization of engineering designs. Robust Engineering methods also may be applied to software testing of ECU algorithms. The net result is an approach capable of improving the software algorithm in one of two ways. First the approach can identify the range of areas which prove problematic to the software such that a robust solution may be developed. Conversely, the approach can be used as a general strategy to verify that the software is robust over the range of inputs tested. The robust engineering methods applied to software testing utilize orthogonal array experiments to test software over a range of inputs. The actual software trials are best performed in the simulation environment and also via automated test hardware in the loop configurations in realtime. This paper outlines a process for applying Robust Engineering methods to software testing.
Technical Paper

CAE-Based Side Curtain Airbag Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-0841
Since its invention in early 1990s, the side curtain airbag has become an important part of the occupant restraint system for side impact and rollover protection. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is often used to help side curtain airbag design. Because of the unique characteristics of side curtain airbag systems, the simulation of side curtain airbag systems faces different challenges in comparison to the simulation of driver and passenger airbag systems. The typical side curtain airbag CAE analysis includes, but is not limited to, cushion volume evaluation, cushion coverage review, cushion shrinkage and tension force review, deployment timing review and seam shape and location review. The commonly used uniform pressure airbag models serve the purpose in most cases.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept at Vehicle Idle Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0613
The concept of condenser, fan, and radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) was further evaluated via three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies in the present paper for vehicle at idle conditions. The analysis shows that the CFRM configuration was more prone to the problem of front-end air re-circulation as compared with the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The enhanced front-end air re-circulation leads to a higher air temperature passing through the condenser. The higher air temperature, left unimproved, could render the vehicle air conditioning (AC) unit ineffective. The analysis also shows that the front-end air re-circulation can be reduced with an added sealing between the CFRM package and the front of the vehicle, making the CFRM package acceptable at the vehicle idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Platform for Diagnostic Development of a Controlled Chassis System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1058
This paper discusses the development and application of a closed-loop co-simulation platform for a controlled chassis system. The platform is comprised of several software packages, including CarSim®(MSC Corporation), AmeSim®(ImaGine Software Corporation), MATLAB®/SIMULINK®(Mathworks Corporation). The platform provides the ability to quickly evaluate enhancements to existing algorithms and to evaluate new control or diagnostic concepts, making it a rapid medium for development, testing and validation. The co-simulation platform was configured with real vehicle calibration data and used to test the validity/limitations of a simple model-based sensor diagnostics strategy. Using this approach, it was possible to quickly check for performance issues and consider needed corrections or enhancements without incurring the time and cost burden associated with in-vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Control of Brake- and Steer-by-Wire Systems During Brake Actuator Failure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0923
In this paper a method of mitigating the consequences of potential brake actuator failure in vehicles with brake-by-wire (BBW) and possibly with steer-by-wire (SBW) systems is described. The proposed control algorithm is based on rules derived from general principles of vehicle dynamics. When a failure of one actuator is detected, the algorithm redistributes the braking forces among the remaining actuators in such a way that the desired deceleration of vehicle is followed as closely as possible, while the magnitude and the rate of change of the yaw moment caused by asymmetric braking are properly managed. When vehicle is equipped with BBW system only, or when the desired deceleration can be obtained by redistributing of braking forces, without generating an undesired yaw moment, no steering correction is used. Otherwise, a combination of brake force redistribution and steering correction (to counter the yaw moment generated by non-symmetric braking) is applied.
Technical Paper

Correlation Grading Methodology for Occupant Protection System Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-1631
Computer modeling and simulation have become one of the primary methods for development and design of automobile occupant protection systems (OPS). To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a math-based OPS design, the correlation quality assessment of mathematical models is essential for program success. In a typical industrial approach, correlation quality is assessed by comparing chart characteristics and scored based on an engineer's modeling experience and judgment. However, due to the complexity of the OPS models and their responses, a systematic approach is needed for accuracy and consistency. In this paper, a correlation grading methodology for the OPS models is presented. The grading system evaluates a wide spectrum of a computer model's performances, including kinematics, dynamic responses, and dummy injury measurements. Statistical analysis is utilized to compare the time histories of the tested and simulated dynamic responses.
Technical Paper

Design Process Changes Enabling Rapid Development

2004-10-18
2004-21-0085
This paper will address the electronic development in the wireless industry and compare it to the electronic development in the automotive industry. The wireless industry is characterized by rapid, dramatic high tech changes with a less than two-year cycle time and an equivalent life cycle. The automotive electronics industry is working toward reducing the typical 2 to 3 year development cycle down 1 to 2 years but with a life cycle of 10 years or more. In addition to realizing the electronic development benefits seen in the wireless industry, the automotive industry places significantly more emphasis on the quality and reliability aspects of their designs as many of them are targeted toward, or interface with, safety critical applications. One of the lessons learned from the wireless industry is the development process; where the hardware selection process can be accomplished in a virtual environment in conjunction with concurrent software development.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Journal Article

Diagnostics based on the Statistical Correlation of Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0129
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
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