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Technical Paper

Wafer Applied Underfill – Delivering Flip Chip to the Mainstream

Flip Chip packaging has found limited use for a technology that was introduced decades ago. Its application widened with the use of underfill, a necessary constituent to minimizing CTE mismatch between the component and substrate. Its reliability has been established on laminate substrates for automotive applications, an important development in light of the continuous increase in vehicle electronic content and function. Unfortunately, the assembly process incorporating underfill is cumbersome and batch-like. Also, the adhesive strength of the underfill depends critically on the cleanliness of the die after reflow, necessitating costly cleaning equipment and complex process monitoring protocols. Hence, the process of manufacturing is not SMT-friendly. A new technology, Wafer Applied Underfill (WAU), addresses the shortcomings of the traditional underfill process.
Technical Paper

Using Cluster Analysis for Deriving Menu Structures for Automotive Mobile Multimedia Applications

This paper describes the cluster analysis technique and how it can be used to support menu interface design for in-vehicle multimedia applications. Cluster analysis and similar types of classifying techniques have proven effective for developing simple menu interfaces. This paper extends the use of the cluster analysis technique to a more complex system that consists of 201 generic functions. These functions are representative of those being incorporated into near-term multimedia products. Study results show promise for using cluster analysis as a tool for incorporating the user's organizational structure into the design of a complex menu architecture. Cluster analysis may also benefit the automotive menu designer by providing a means for partitioning menu tasks into chunkable units that can be easily accessed by the driver in single glances.
Technical Paper

Robust Automated Airbag Module Calibration

Increasing sophistication of electronic safety systems requires more advanced tools for design and optimization. Systems of safety products already being designed are becoming too interdependent to calibrate as stand-alone modules. Compounding this difficulty is the trend towards fewer test crashes and more sophisticated regulatory requirements. This paper presents a unified calibration approach to produce robust performance. First, the set of crash samples are extended using statistical techniques. Then an automated calibration tool using Genetic Algorithms is used to provide robust performance against deployment requirements. Finally, an expert systems is employed to ensure logical behavior. Together, these powerful methods yield calibrations which out-perform manual calibrations and can be completed in far less time.
Technical Paper

Multiplex Bus Progression 2003

A previous SAE 2001 Congress paper, “Multiplex Bus Progression” [1] introduced the idea of categorizing vehicle serial data protocols into additional areas beyond the traditional SAE Class A, B, and C. This paper will expand on that idea, and provide a 2003 update to the Diagnostics, SafetyBus, Mobile Media, and X-by-Wire categories. All existing mainstream vehicular multiplex protocols (approximately 40) are categorized using the SAE convention plus the new groupings. Top contenders will be pointed out along with a discussion of the protocol in the best position to become the industry standard in each category at this time.
Technical Paper

Multiplex Bus Progression

The current SAE classification system for serial data communication protocols encompasses Class A, Class B, and Class C categories. Because of the proliferation of applications and new protocols these three groups are not enough. This paper will introduce and discuss several new categories which are Diagnostics, SafetyBus, Mobile Media, and X-by-Wire. The serial data protocols that fall under these categories are for the most part brand new and will serve distinct and unique tasks. All existing common vehicular multiplex protocols (approximately 40) will be categorized using the SAE convention plus the new groupings. Top contenders will be pointed out along with a discussion of the protocol in the best position to become the industry standard in each category. Future vehicle applications having up to seven different data networks will be presented.