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Technical Paper

Visualization of Micro Structure in a Diesel Spray by Use of Photography with High Spatial Resolution

2008-10-06
2008-01-2465
It is very much necessary for researchers and engineers whose work is the field of combustion in a CI engine to find the information of droplets in a diesel spray. The information is strongly required to construct the model of spray built in the numerical code for its simulation and to be used for the verification of the accuracy of the calculation. This paper describes the photographing system with high spatial resolution, the distribution of droplet size and the vortex scale caused by the droplets motion by means of this system.
Technical Paper

Study on Noise Generation Mechanism for Dry Hybrid Type CVT - Influence of Block Motions and Surface Roughness of Pulley on Sound Pressure

2004-03-08
2004-01-0477
In order to reveal the mechanism of noise generation from CVT (Continuously Variable Transmissions) using a dry hybrid V-belt, the power spectrum of sound from a two-pulley CVT system and its variation with respect to rotational speed were measured. The experimental results showed that the frequency of the first peak in the power spectrum of the observed sound linearly increased with increasing the rotational speed of the pulley. The sound frequency of the first peak coincides with the frequency derived from the belt block pitch and the belt speed. Then, sound intensity analyses were conducted to identify noise sources of CVT. The experimental results reveal that unpleasant sound whose frequency is high occurs due to the collision or slip between CVT blocks and the pulley groove at the entrance and the exit of V-groove pulleys. Pulley surface roughness strongly affects the noise level. Additionally, the location of noise source varies due to surface roughness of the pulley groove.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

2007-04-16
2007-01-0629
It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Soot Kinetic Modeling and Empirical Validation on Smokeless Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

2003-05-19
2003-01-1789
This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

2012-10-23
2012-32-0031
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of Fuel Droplet Deposition Amount and Oil Film Thickness on Spray Impingement Using Double Laser Induced Fluorescence Method

2017-10-08
2017-01-2371
Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is installed as after treatment device of exhaust gas in diesel engine, and collects the Particulate Matter (PM). However, as the operation time of engine increases, PM is accumulated in the DPF, resulting in deterioration of PM collection efficiency and increasing in pressure loss. Therefore, Post injection has been attracted attention as DPF regeneration method for burning and removing PM in DPF. However, Post injection causes oil dilution when fuel is injected at the middle to late stage of expansion stroke. Oil dilution are concerned to deteriorate the sliding property of piston and the thermal efficiency. For this reason, it is necessary to elucidate the mechanism and the behavior that spray impinges lubricating oil film. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to construct model of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that predicts amount of oil dilution which is concern for post injection in diesel engine, with high accuracy.
Technical Paper

Similarity Law of Entrainment into Diesel Spray and Steady Spray

1990-02-01
900447
The surroundings around the diesel spray are entrained during the growth of the spray. The mixing process between the evaporated fuel oil and the entrained surroundings, that is, the entrainment, has a significant meaning for the combustion diesel engine. It is difficult to detect the movement of the entrainment because the diesel spray is the gas-liquid two-phase flow and the unsteady phenomenon within a few milliseconds. Then, in order to clarify and to generalize the movement of entrainment, following three experiments were done. 1)Two-dimensional steady water spray -flat spray- injected into the ambient atmosphere, using tuft and hot wire method. 2) Unsteady water jet injected into water, using tracer. 3)single diesel spray injected into the atmosphere with high pressure at room temperature, using smoke wire.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Reaction Mechanism for n-Tridecane Based on Knowledge of Detailed Reaction Paths

2016-10-17
2016-01-2238
n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission and Fuel Economy with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Phenomenological Model

2004-03-08
2004-01-0531
In this study, a system to perform a parameter search of heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. Recently, it has become essential to use design methodologies including computer simulations for diesel engines that have small amounts of NOx and SOOT while maintaining reasonable fuel economy. For this purpose, multi-objective optimization techniques should be used. Multi-objective optimization problems have several types of objectives and they should be minimized or maximized at the same time. There is often a trade-off relationship between objects and derivation of the Pareto optimum solutions that express the relationship between the objects is one of the goals in this case. The proposed system consists of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and phenomenological model. MOGA has strong search capability for Pareto optimum solutions. However, MOGA requires a large number of iterations.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Spindle Force Using Measured Road Forces on Rolling Tire

2009-05-19
2009-01-2107
Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact.
Technical Paper

Power Transmitting Mechanisms of CVT Using a Metal V-Belt and Load Distribution in the Steel Ring

1998-02-23
980824
An advanced numerical model is proposed to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a CVT using a metal V-belt. By using the present model, forces acting on the belt are well estimated not only at steady states but also during transitional states where the speed ratio is changing. The numerical results show that blocks are in compression in both strands when the speed ratio is rapidly shifted. A complementary model is also developed to analyze the load distribution among bands which form the ring. The load distribution in the ring is governed by the difference in coefficients of friction among elements.
Technical Paper

Power Transmitting Mechanism of a Dry Hybrid V-Belt for a CVT - Advanced Numerical Model Considering Block Tilting and Pulley Deformation -

1999-03-01
1999-01-0751
A new discrete model was developed in order to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a dry hybrid V-belt CVT not only at steady states but also at transitional states where the speed ratio was changing. Block tilting in the pulley was considered in the advanced numerical model as well as pulley deformation due to pulley thrust. The validity of the present model was well confirmed by comparing the calculated results on transmitting and normal forces with the former experimental results. The calculated results showed that both block tilting and pulley deformation meaningfully affected the pulley thrust ratio between the driving and the driven pulleys.
Technical Paper

Permanent Deflection of Two-Layered Clutch Plates - - How to Reduce the Deflection of Two-Layered Clutch Plates -

2004-03-08
2004-01-0740
Two-layered clutch plates manufactured by a new process using BMC show a significant deflection. Two methods solving such deflection were alternatively developed in this study. Changing the composition of the clutch plate appeared to be useless while after-curing on deflected clutch plates was effective. Thermal cycles or high pressure for after-cure did not reduce the deflection. However, applying after-cure with a sloped mold reduce the deflection without increasing the disk density.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Profile fo r Reduction of Piston Slap Excitation

2004-09-27
2004-32-0022
This paper presents an analytical model for the prediction of piston secondary motion and the vibration due to piston slap. For the modeling of piston slap phenomenon, cylinder liner is modeled as a several spring-mass system that are connected by modal characteristics, and lubricant film between the piston and the cylinder is modeled as reaction force vectors which excite resonant mode of them. By comparing experimental results and analytical ones, the validity of the proposed model has been confirmed. The optimization of the piston skirt profile is also carried out with the analytical model, and it is confirmed that the round shape of the lower part of piston skirt is effective for the reduction of piston slap excitation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Manufacturing Process of Glass Fibers/Phenol Composites. Effects of Solidification Conditions, Fiber Length and Additional Materials on their Mechanical Properties

2003-03-03
2003-01-1128
The aim of these experiments is to determine the best way to obtain high mechanical properties for phenol resin and glass fibers based composites. Various ways of fabricating the material were studied, as well as its best composition. The conditions of drying, molding processes were optimized. From the most conventional method, using ethanol as a solvent to newer ones, including continuous ways of processing and the use of water instead of ethanol, a lot of possibilities exist to produce such a material. This paper explains the advantages and drawbacks of a whole range of manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

On-Board Measurement of Engine Performance and Emissions in Diesel Vehicle Operated with Bio-diesel Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0083
This paper describes the results of on-board measurement of engine performance and emissions in diesel vehicle operated with bio-diesel fuels. Here, two waste-cooking oils were investigated. One fuel is a waste-cooking oil methyl esters. This fuel is actually applied to a garbage collection vehicle with DI diesel engine (B100) and the city bus (B20; 80% gas oil is mixed into B100 in volume) as an alternative fuel of gas oil in Kyoto City. Another one is a fuel with ozone treatment by removing impurities from raw waste-cooking oils. Here, in order to improve the fuel properties, kerosene is mixed 70% volume in this fuel. This mixed fuel (i-BDF) is applied into several tracks and buses in Wakayama City. Then, these 3 bio-diesel fuels were applied to the on-board experiments and the results were compared with gas oil operation case.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Fuel Spray

2003-05-19
2003-01-1838
Fuel design for internal combustion engines has been proposed in our study. In this concept, the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels are used in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the spray and combustion characteristics of the multicomponent fuels in detail. In the present study, the modeling of multicomponent spray vaporization was conducted using KIVA3V code. The physical fuel properties of multicomponent fuel were estimated using the source code of NIST Mixture Property Database. Peng-Robinson equation of state and fugacity calculation were applied to the estimation of liquid-vapor equilibrium in order to take account for non-ideal vaporization process. Two-zone model in which fuel droplet was divided into droplet surface and inner core was introduced in order to simply consider the temperature distribution in fuel droplet.
Technical Paper

New Concept on Lower Exhaust Emission of Diesel Engine

1995-09-01
952062
One of countermeasures for exhaust emissions from a diesel engine, especially, DI diesel engine, is the use of a super high pressure injection system with a small hole diameter. However, the system needs greater driving force than that with normal injection pressure, and its demerit is increase in NOx, although soot is decreasing. Then, authors propose the new concept on the simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot. The concept is that the utilization of flash boiling phenomenon in a diesel engine. The phenomenon can be realized by use of the injection of fuel oil with CO2 gas dissolved. Flash boiling facilitates the distinguished atomization of fuel oil and CO2 gas contributes to realizes the internal EGR during combustion. Fundamental information on the characteristics of a flash boiling spray of n-tridecane with CO2 gas dissolved is described in this paper, as a first step.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy using Genetic Algorithms and Phenomenological Model

2002-10-21
2002-01-2778
In this paper, the simulation of the multi-objective optimization problem of a diesel engine is performed using the phenomenological model of a diesel engine and the genetic algorithm. The target purpose functions are Specific fuel consumption, NOx, and Soot. The design variable is a shape of injection rate. In this research, we emphasize the following three topics by applying the optimization techniques to an emission problem of a diesel engine. Firstly, the multiple injections control the objectives. Secondly, the multi-objective optimization is very useful in an emission problem. Finally, the phenomenological model has a great advantage for optimization. The developed system is illustrated with the simulation examples.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Wall Impinging Behavior with a Fan Shaped Spray

2003-05-19
2003-01-1841
The experiment-based droplet impinging breakup model was applied to a fan shaped spray and the impinging behavior was analyzed quantitatively. Evaluation of the quantitative results with validation tests verified the following. The model enables prediction of fan shaped spray thickness after impingement caused by the breakup of fuel droplets, which could not be represented with the Wall-Jet model, widely used at present. Fuel film movement on a wall is negligible when the injection pressure of the fan shaped spray is high and the spray travelling length is not too short. The proposed heat transfer coefficient between fuel film and the wall is too small to represent the vaporizing rate of the fuel film.
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