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Technical Paper

Virtual Exhaust Line for Model-based Diesel Aftertreatment Development

2010-04-12
2010-01-0888
A virtual diesel aftertreatment exhaust line is presented comprising DOC, DPF, SCR models and a unique Ammonia Oxidation catalyst model. All models are one dimensional models based on first principles. These models offer an attractive compromise between speed, accuracy and complexity for a variety of model applications: off-line simulation, control strategy development, Hardware in the Loop applications and model-based calibration. The implemented models are fast and suitable for real-time applications. Use of these virtual exhaust line models in a product development process has the potential of saving time and resources. The aftertreatment models are fitted based on specifically designed engine dynamometer experiments, which can be performed in a limited time frame. The effective test time required on a validated test setup is estimated on the order of 12 days in total. Specifically developed software tools facilitate the model fit process.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1698
Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Technical Paper

Versatile Occupant Analysis Model (V.O.A.M) for Frontal Impacts Using LS-DYNA and MADYMO

2005-04-11
2005-01-1000
Regulations implemented by safety commissions throughout the world have resulted in extensive physical testing to protect the occupants during frontal impact events. Significant prototype and test costs aimed at optimizing structure and restraint systems are associated with meeting these regulations. To help reduce development costs, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is often applied. LS-DYNA [1] coupled with MADYMO [2] is widely used in crash and occupant safety simulation. An analysis technique which utilized a single model to design and optimize interiors (instrument panel, seats, visor, steering wheel, steering column) and restraints (airbag, seatbelts, retractor, pre-tensioner) was developed. The single model concept captures the global structural kinematics through minimal vehicle representation. Global vehicle modes such as pitch and roll can be represented by applying prescribed motion boundary conditions extracted from full vehicle models.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Speed Prediction for Driver Assistance Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0170
A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Pulse Shape Optimization to Improve Occupant Response in Front Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1625
This paper presents a new approach to improve occupant response in a front impact event. Instead of designing a vehicle structure for maximum structural efficiency and safety and then engineer a restraint system for the vehicle, this paper proposes to use a systems approach. In this approach, the vehicle structural response during impact (i.e., pulse) and the restraint system are considered together in the optimization process. In this paper, the 35 mph front impact into a rigid barrier with belted occupants, which is the NHTSA NCAP test, will be used to demonstrate the proposed new approach.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cradle Durability Design Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1003
In this paper, cradle design functional objectives are briefly reviewed and a durability development process is proposed focusing on the cradle loads, stress, strain, and fatigue life analysis. Based upon the proposed design process, sample isolated and non-isolated cradle finite element (FE) models for a uni-body sport utility vehicle (SUV) under different design phases are solved and correlated with laboratory bench and proving ground tests. The correlation results show that the applied cradle models can be used to accurately predict the critical stress spots and fatigue life under various loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Actuation Strategies for Better Efficiency Load Range and Thermal Management in an RCCI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0254
The Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition concept for dual-fuel engines has multiple challenges of which some can be overcome using Variable Valve Actuation approaches. For various fuel combinations, the engine research community has shown that running dual-fuel engines in RCCI mode, improves thermal efficiency and results in ultra-low engine-out nitrous oxides and soot. However, stable RCCI combustion is limited to a certain load range, depending on available hardware. At low loads, the combustion efficiency can drop significantly, whereas at high loads, the maximum in-cylinder pressure can easily exceed the engine design limit. In this paper, three VVA measures to increase load range, improve combustion efficiency, and perform thermal management are presented. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the potential of these VVA measures for a heavy-duty engine running on natural gas and diesel.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3054
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Technical Paper

USCAR Traction Test Methodology for Traction-CVT Fluids

2002-10-21
2002-01-2820
A traction test machine, developed for evaluation of traction-CVT fluids for the automotive consortium, USCAR, provides precision traction measurements to stresses up to 4 GPa. The high stress machine, WAMhs, provides an elliptical contact between AISI 52100 steel roller and disc specimens. Machine stiffness and positioning technology offer precision control of linear slip, sideslip and spin. A USCAR traction test methodology includes entrainment velocities from 2 to 10 m/sec and temperatures from -20°C to 140°C. The purpose of the USCAR machine and test methodology is to encourage traction fluid development and to establish a common testing approach for fluid qualification. The machine utilizes custom software, which provides flexibility to conduct comprehensive traction fluid evaluations.
Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1257
Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
Technical Paper

Truck Body Mount Load Prediction from Wheel Force Transducer Measurements

2005-04-11
2005-01-1404
This paper introduces a reliable method to calculate body mount loads from wheel-force-transducer (WFT) measurements on framed vehicles. The method would significantly reduce time and cost in vehicle development process. The prediction method includes two parts: Hybrid Load Analysis (HLA) that has been used by DaimlerChrysler Corporation and Body Mount Load Analysis (BMLA) that is introduced by this paper for the first time. The method is validated on a body-on-frame SUV and a pickup truck through one proving ground events. The example shown in this paper is for a SUV and one of the most severe events. In HLA, the loads at suspension-to-frame attachments are calculated from spindle loads measured by WFT. In BMLA, body mount loads were calculated using outputs of HLA with detailed finite-element-modeled frame and body. The loads are compared with measured body mount loads. The comparisons are conducted in range, standard deviation (S.D.), and fatigue pseudo-damage.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Position Measurement using String-pots

2005-04-11
2005-01-1419
It is often necessary to measure three-axis displacement of a deforming or moving part in static or dynamic impact tests. A point moving in the three-dimensional space can be monitored and measured using three string-pots or other distance measuring devices with a methodology developed here. A numerical algorithm along with required equations are shown and discussed. The algorithm was applied as an example to static seat pull test and compared to results from film analysis. The application with string pots is useful especially when the point of concern gets hidden or blocked by other parts disabling the photogrammetry technology.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

The New DaimlerChrysler Corporation 5.7L HEMI® V8 Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2815
For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC) will introduce an all-new 5.7L V8 truck engine manufactured at the new Saltillo II Engine Plant (SEPII) in Saltillo, Mexico. The product will debut in the new RAM series of pick-up trucks and marks the return of the hemispherical combustion chamber architecture. This paper covers the engine design features, simulation methods, development, and manufacturing processes. Also reviewed are the project objectives and the organizational processes used to manage and deliver the program.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Control of Cyclic Variations of Flow in a Piston Cylinder Assembly

2003-03-03
2003-01-1357
The existence of the cyclic variation of the flow inside an cylinder affects the performance of the engine. Developing methods to understand and control in-cylinder flow has been a goal of engine designers for nearly 100 years. In this paper, passive control of the intake flow of a 3.5-liter DaimlerChrysler engine was examined using a unique optical diagnostic technique: Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV), which has been developed at Michigan State University. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the normalized circulation are calculated from instantaneous planar velocity measurements to quantify gas motion within a cylinder. Emphasis of this work is examination of methods that quantify the cyclic variability of the flow. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of the flow on the tumble and swirl plane is calculated and compared to the PDF circulation results.
Technical Paper

The DaimlerChrysler Full-Scale Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

2003-03-03
2003-01-0426
This paper provides an overview of the design and commissioning results for the DaimlerChrysler full-scale vehicle Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) brought online in 2002. This wind tunnel represents the culmination of the plan for aeroacoustic facilities at the DaimlerChrysler Corporation Technical Center (DCTC) in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The competing requirements of excellent flow quality, low background noise, and constructed cost within budget were optimized using Computational Fluid Dynamics, extensive acoustic modeling, and a variety of scale-model experimental results, including dedicated experiments carried out in the 3/8-scale pilot wind tunnel located at DCTC. The paper describes the project history, user requirements, and design philosophy employed in realizing the facility. The AAWT meets all of DaimlerChrylser's performance targets, and was delivered on schedule. The commissioning results presented in this paper show its performance to be among the best in the world.
Technical Paper

The Climatic-Altitude Chamber as Development and Validation Tool

2010-04-12
2010-01-1294
Two major trends can be identified for powertrain control in the next decade. The legislation will more and more focus on in-use emissions. Together with the global trend to reduce the CO₂ emissions, this will lead to an integral drive train approach. To develop and validate this integral drive train approach, the need for a new chapter in powertrain testing arises. The climatic-altitude chamber, suited for heavy vehicles, serves a wide variety of testing needs. Ambient temperature can be controlled between -45°C and +55°C and ambient pressure can be reduced up to a level found at an altitude to 4000 meters. The chamber's dynamometers enable transient testing of heavy-duty engines and vehicles and the chamber is equipped with a comprehensive array of emission measurement capabilities, working under extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

Testing Elastomers - Can Correlation Be Achieved Between Machines, Load Cells, Fixtures and Operators?

2001-04-30
2001-01-1443
At present, testing elastomeric parts is performed at a level dictated by the users of the testing equipment. No society or testing group has defined a formal standard of testing or a way to calibrate a testing machine. This is in part due to the difficulty involved with testing a material whose properties are in a constant state of flux. To further complicate this issue, testing equipment, testing procedures, fixtures, and a host of other variables including the operators themselves, all can have an impact on the characterization of elastomers. The work presented in this paper looks at identifying some of the variables of testing between machines, load cells, fixtures and operators. It also shows that correlation can be achieved and should be performed between companies to ensure data integrity.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Improve Springback Prediction Accuracy Using Dynamic Explicit FEA Codes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0159
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in the simulation of sheet metal forming process. The accurate prediction of the springback is still a major challenge due to its sensitivity to the geometric modeling of the tools, strain hardening model, yield criterion, contact algorithm, loading pattern, element formulation, mesh size and number of through-thickness integration points, etc. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effect of numerical parameters on springback prediction using dynamic explicit FEA codes. The example used in the study is from the Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Steel Rail Springback Project. The modeling techniques are discussed and the guidelines are provided for choosing numerical parameters, which influence the accuracy of the springback prediction and the computation cost.
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