Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

A New Composite Drive Cycle for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Class 4-6 Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1052
This paper presents a new composite drive cycle used to evaluate and test the performance of Class 4-6 heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The new cycle is being used in the ongoing Advanced Heavy Hybrid Propulsion Systems (AHHPS) Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal was to select a cycle that is acceptable to all involved parties, has an achievable speed-time trace for target applications, represents the typical driving pattern of these applications, and is practical for testing and state-of-charge correction. These criteria were applied to numerous element and composite cycles. Ultimately, a new composite cycle was developed and selected-the Combined International Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC). Various activities conducted under the AHHPS Program are based on this cycle, including energy auditing, modeling and simulation, system optimization, and vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Advanced NOx Aftertreatment System And Controls For On-Highway Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2006-10-31
2006-01-3552
This paper describes a NOx aftertreatment system and control strategy for heavy-duty diesel engines to achieve US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. The NOx aftertreatment system comprises of a fuel reformer catalyst, a LNT catalyst, and a SCR catalyst. The only reductant required to operate this system is diesel fuel; hence, no urea infrastructure is required to support this approach. The fuel reformer is used to generate reformate which is a combination of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. This reformate provides a more efficient feedstock to improve LNT NOx regeneration efficiency. Engine out NOx is reduced using a two-step process. First, NOx is stored in the LNT catalyst during lean operation. During rich operation, portions of the stored NOx are converted to nitrogen and ammonia. Next, the ammonia released from the LNT is captured by the downstream SCR catalyst. The stored ammonia is further used to reduce the NOx that slips past the LNT catalyst.
Technical Paper

Advanced NOx Aftertreatment System Performance Following 150 LNT Desulfation Events

2008-06-23
2008-01-1541
An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is being developed using a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series for both on- and off- highway diesel engines to meet the upcoming emissions regulations. This system utilizes a fuel reformer to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses LNT and SCR catalyst degradation as these were subjected to 150 desulfation events using a pre-production 2007 medium heavy-duty, on-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Spectral-Based Substructuring Approach to Analyze the Dynamic Interactions of Powertrain Structures

2003-05-05
2003-01-1731
A spectral-based substructuring approach applying linear frequency response functions (FRF) is proposed for improving the accuracy of simulating the dynamics of coupled systems. The method also applies a least square singular value decomposition (SVD) scheme to overcome the inherent computational deficiency in the basic substructuring formulation. The computational problem is caused by the magnification of measurement errors during any one of the matrix inversion calculations required for this method. The primary objective of applying this approach is to examine the possibility of analyzing higher frequency response that is normally not possible using conventional modeling technique such as the direct finite and boundary element, and lumped parameter techniques. In this study, additional concepts are also evaluated to quantify the limitations and range of applicability of the proposed substructuring approach for simulating the vibration response of complex powertrain structures.
Technical Paper

Class 4 Hybrid Electric Truck for Pick Up and Delivery Applications

2003-11-10
2003-01-3368
Pick up and delivery vehicle applications such as parcel handling trucks represent an ideal duty cycle for Hybrid Electric Powertrains. The low speed, frequent stopping and starting operation provides good opportunities for enhancing engine behavior and recovering braking energy by adding an electric drive system to the vehicle. FedEx Express collaborated with the environmental advocacy group Environmental Defense to announce the Future Vehicle Program, with the goal of developing significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy for the familiar FedEx Express W700 parcel delivery vehicle. This paper describes the objectives, development activities, and test results for one of the vehicles submitted to this program. A team led by Eaton Corporation prepared the Direct Hybrid Electric Powertrain system, which received the highest ranking in the Future Vehicle Program evaluation.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck

2003-11-10
2003-01-3369
The power management control system development and vehicle test results for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck are reported in this paper. The design procedure adopted is a model-based approach, and is based on the dynamic programming technique. A vehicle model is first developed, and the optimal control actions to maximize fuel economy are then obtained by the dynamic programming method. A near-optimal control strategy is subsequently extracted and implemented using a rapid-prototyping control development system, which provides a convenient environment to adjust the control algorithms and accommodate various I/O configurations. Dynamometer-testing results confirm that the proposed algorithm helps the prototype hybrid truck to achieve a 45% fuel economy improvement on the benchmark (non-hybrid) vehicle. It also compares favorably to a conventional rule-based control method, which only achieves a 31% fuel economy improvement on the same hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

Design and Development of a Switching Roller Finger Follower for Discrete Variable Valve Lift in Gasoline Engine Applications

2012-09-10
2012-01-1639
Global environmental and economic concerns regarding increasing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission are driving changes to legislative regulations and consumer demand. As regulations become more stringent, advanced engine technologies must be developed and implemented to realize desired benefits. Discrete variable valve lift technology is a targeted means to achieve improved fuel economy in gasoline engines. By limiting intake air flow with an engine valve, as opposed to standard throttling, road-load pumping losses are reduced resulting in improved fuel economy. This paper focuses on the design and development of a switching roller finger follower system which enables two mode discrete variable valve lift on end pivot roller finger follower valvetrains. The system configuration presented includes a four-cylinder passenger car engine with an electro-hydraulic oil control valve, dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster, and switching roller finger follower.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for a Switching Roller Finger Follower

2012-09-24
2012-01-1964
An advanced variable valve actuation system is developed that requires a coating with high stress loading capability on the sliding interfaces to enable compact packaging solutions for gasoline passenger car applications. The valvetrain system consists of a switching roller bearing finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve. The SRFF contains two slider pads and a single roller to provide discrete variable valve lift capability on the intake valves. These components are installed on a four cylinder gasoline engine. The motivation for designing this type of variable valve actuation system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during partial load engine operation. This paper addresses the technology developed to utilize a Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the slider pads of the SRFF.
Technical Paper

Downspeeding and Supercharging a Diesel Passenger Car for Increased Fuel Economy

2012-04-16
2012-01-0704
The effects of downspeeding and supercharging a passenger car diesel engine were studied through laboratory investigation and vehicle simulation. Changes in the engine operating range, transmission gearing, and shift schedule resulted in improved fuel consumption relative to the baseline turbocharged vehicle while maintaining performance and drivability metrics. A shift schedule optimization technique resulted in fuel economy gains of up to 12% along with a corresponding reduction in transmission shift frequency of up to 55% relative to the baseline turbocharged configuration. First gear acceleration, top gear passing, and 0-60 mph acceleration of the baseline turbocharged vehicle were retained for the downsped supercharged configuration.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0379
Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis Methodology for Predicting Engine Valve Life

2003-03-03
2003-01-0726
Using FEM (Finite Element Method) and other analytical approaches, a systematic methodology was developed to predict an engine valve's fatigue life. In this study, a steel (SAE 21-2N) exhaust valve on an engine with a type 2 valve train configuration was used as a test case. Temperature and stress/strain responses of each major event phase of the engine cycle were analytically simulated. CFD models were developed to simulate the exhaust gas flow to generate boundary conditions for a thermal model of the valve. FEM simulations accounted for thermal loads, temperature dependent material properties, thermal stresses, closing impact stresses and combustion load stresses. An estimated fatigue life was calculated using Miner's rule of damage accumulation in conjunction with the Modified Goodman approach for fluctuating stresses. Predicted life results correlated very well with empirical tests.
Technical Paper

Frictional Differences between Rolling and Sliding Interfaces for Passenger Car Switching Roller Finger Followers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0382
The demand for improving fuel economy in passenger cars is continuously increasing. Eliminating energy losses within the engine is one method of achieving fuel economy improvement. Frictional energy losses account for a noticeable portion of the overall efficiency of an engine. Valvetrain friction, specifically at the camshaft interface, is one area where potential for friction reduction is evident. Several factors can impact the friction at the camshaft interface. Some examples include: camshaft lobe profile, rocker arm interface geometry, valve spring properties, material properties, oil temperature, and oil pressure. This paper discusses the results of a series of tests that experimented the changes in friction that take place as these factors are altered. The impact of varying testing conditions such as oil pressure and oil temperature was evaluated throughout the duration of the testing and described herein.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Comparison Studies of Forklift Transmission Architecture

2015-09-29
2015-01-2830
Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Modeling and Simulation for Diesel Aftertreatment Controls Devlopment

2009-10-06
2009-01-2928
This paper addresses Hardware-In-the-Loop modeling and simulation for Diesel aftertreatment controls system development. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) based aftertreatment system is an efficient way to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines. From control system perspective, the main challenge in aftertreatment system is to predict temperature at various locations and estimate the stored NOx in LNT. Accurate estimation of temperatures and NOx stored in the LNT will result in an efficient system control with less fuel penalty while still maintaining the emission requirements. The optimization of the controls will prolong the lifespan of the system by avoiding overheating the catalysts, and slow the progressive process of component aging. Under real world conditions, it is quite difficult and costly to test the performance of a such complex controller by using only vehicle tests and engine cells.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management System

2009-06-15
2009-01-1772
Eaton has developed a prototype hydraulic hybrid vehicle energy management system that substantially improves fuel economy and reduces harmful emissions. The system was developed cooperatively with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Navistar Inc., and the U.S. Army. The system has demonstrated fuel economy improvements in real world use of up to 50 percent while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions by up to 30 percent. The first real world application of the technology will be in parcel delivery vehicles owned by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid vehicle energy management system components will be described and principles of operation explained. Major properties of the system will be examined and it will be shown why the hydraulic hybrid system is well suited for the parcel delivery vehicle application. Several secondary beneficial properties of the system will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management System

2009-10-06
2009-01-2834
Eaton has developed a prototype hydraulic hybrid vehicle energy management system that substantially improves fuel economy and reduces harmful emissions. The system was developed cooperatively with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Navistar Inc., and the U.S. Army. The system has demonstrated fuel economy improvements in real world use of up to 50 percent while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions by up to 30 percent. The first real world application of the technology will be in parcel delivery vehicles owned by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid vehicle energy management system components will be described and principles of operation explained. Major properties of the system will be examined and it will be shown why the hydraulic hybrid system is well suited for the parcel delivery vehicle application. Several secondary beneficial properties of the system will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

In-Duct Acoustic Source Data for Roots Blowers

2017-06-05
2017-01-1792
Increased demands for reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are driven by the global warming. To meet these challenges with respect to the passenger car segment the strategy of utilizing IC-engine downsizing has shown to be effective. In order to additionally meet requirements for high power and torque output supercharging is required. This can be realized using e.g. turbo-chargers, roots blowers or a combination of several such devices for the highest specific power segment. Both turbo-chargers and roots blowers can be strong sources of sound depending on the operating conditions and extensive NVH abatements such as resonators and encapsulation might be required to achieve superior vehicle NVH. For an efficient resonator tuning process in-duct acoustic source data is required. No published studies exists that describe how the gas exchange process for roots blowers can be described by acoustic sources in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Innovative Design - Route to Functionally Graded Structures

2017-01-10
2017-26-0157
Functionally graded materials enable structures to have distribution of different properties (physical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, etc.) across its volume; achievable via material/ design/ process engineering. These functionally graded materials can find an application in systems which demand localized variation or enhancement in properties in different regions of the same component. In this paper, we focus on the potential ways of designing functionally graded polymer composite structure by injection molding process. Advanced mold designs for injection molding process can be effectively used to manufacture the functionally graded structures. Innovative design approach has been explored to control the distribution of the filler content /orientation to impart distinctive properties across the cross section / geometry without affecting the bulk properties.
Technical Paper

Internet-based Vehicle Communication Network

2000-12-04
2000-01-3503
A number of different data networks have been implemented for electronic control unit communication in vehicles to date. Each network serves a particular need, such as low-cost networking of cab components or high-speed networking of powertrain components. Although each communication network performs its original purpose, the different communication networks, especially those using hardware-based messaging protocols, are expensive to integrate for information sharing and are not readily upgradeable with new messages. This is complicated by the growing number of different communication networks for vehicles, often driven by OEM and supplier technology consortiums rather than by end-user requirements. The result is added vehicle-support costs for the OEM, dealership and customer to maintain multiple networks.
X