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Journal Article

Valve Guide for High Temperature Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-1110
Sintered valve guides are increasingly used in various engine applications due to their superior durability and cost. Typical valve guide materials are low alloyed materials of the type Fe-Cu-C. More severe applications may require higher alloying content. One such application is EGR where the exhaust temperatures are much higher as compared to the conventional automotive valve guide. A new material was developed to work in this harsh environment. The object of this paper is to report development of this material including material properties and durability test results.
Journal Article

Transient On-Road Emission Reduction of an LNT + SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2641
An LNT + SCR diesel aftertreatment system was developed in order to meet the 2010 US HD EPA on-road, and tier 4 US HD EPA off-road emission standards. This system consists of a fuel reformer (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series to reduce tailpipe nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). This system utilizes a REF to produce hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and heat to regenerate the LNT, desulfate the LNT, and actively regenerate the DPF. The NOx stored on the LNT is reduced by the H2 and CO generated in the REF converting it to nitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3). NH3, which is normally an undesired byproduct of LNT regeneration, is stored in the downstream SCR which is utilized to further reduce NOx that passes through the LNT. Engine exhaust PM is filtered and trapped by the DPF reducing the tailpipe PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Timing Gear Whine Noise Reduction Methodology and Application in Superchargers

2005-05-16
2005-01-2450
Extensive experimental and numerical investigations were done to improve the vibration and acoustic performance due to excitation at the timing gears of automotive supercharger. Gear excitation, system response, and covers have been studied to find the most cost efficient method for reducing gear whine noise. Initially, gear excitation was studied where it was found that transmission error due to profile quality was the dominant source parameter for gear whine noise. To investigate the system effects on gear noise, a parametric study was carried using FEM model of the supercharger, with special interests in optimizing dynamic characteristics of internal components and the coupling to supercharger housing. The BEM model of the corresponding supercharger was built to predict the noise improvement after dynamic optimization of the system. Good correlations were observed between experimental and numerical results in both dynamic and acoustic parameters.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

2012-09-10
2012-01-1640
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis of an Automotive Engine Valve by Finite Element Methods

2006-04-03
2006-01-0017
A detailed study, by finite element method (FEM), was conducted on an automotive engine exhaust valve subject to various loads (i.e. spring load, combustion pressure load, temperature profile and valve impact closing velocity). The 3D nonlinear (contact element and temperature-dependent) thermal-mechanical model was constructed and implicit time integration method was employed in transient dynamics under impact velocity. The predicted temperatures and maximum valve stress under impact velocity via FEM were compared with the measured test data, which were in good agreement. In addition, this study finds that the energy transfer during valve closing in normal engine operation is mainly conservative, and a linear relation exists between valve closing velocity and maximum stem stress, that was also confirmed by both test data and analytical expression presented using elastic wave and vibration theory.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Engine Valve Stress/Strain Response During a Closing Event

2003-03-03
2003-01-0727
Using an implicit transient FEA models of an intake engine valve, the dynamic stress/strain response of a valve closing (impact) on the valve seat was simulated. Key dynamic events during the closing process were identified and their corresponding physics accounted for in the model including: valve seat contact, valve tilt, rocker arm separation, material properties, shock wave and stem seal damping. Empirical tests were conducted to characterize the stem seal damping as a function of valve stem velocity. In addition, a simplified dynamics equation approach was developed. The results were successfully correlated to recorded strain gauge data.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Study of Torque Vectoring on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2009-12-13
2009-28-0062
This paper discusses the effect of torque vectoring differential on improving vehicle handling and stability performance. The torque vectoring concept has been analyzed. The vehicle discussed in this paper is an AWD vehicle with torque vectoring differential in the rear and a torque biasing center differential. First, simulation results with vehicle model in CarSim® and torque vectoring control algorithm in Matlab®/Simulink® is discussed. Then, experimental results for vehicle tested at winter and summer test facility is presented. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of torque vectoring differential on vehicle handling & stability.
Technical Paper

Simulated Performance of a Diesel Aftertreatment System for U.S. 2010 Application

2006-10-31
2006-01-3551
An aftertreatment system for medium and heavy-duty diesel engines has been modeled for U.S. 2010 application. The aftertreatment system is comprised of a lean NOx trap (LNT) and an ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Descriptions of the fully transient, one-dimensional LNT and SCR models are presented. The models simulate flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions in the LNT and SCR catalysts. The models can be used to predict catalyst performance over a range of operating conditions and driving cycles. Simulated results of NOx conversion efficiency, species concentrations, and gas temperature were compared to experimental data for a 13-mode test. The model results showed the LNT-SCR model predicts system performance with reasonable accuracy in comparison to experimental data. Therefore, two model applications were investigated. First, LNT and SCR volumes were varied to examine the effect on NOx conversion efficiency and NH3 production.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-2008
Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Journal Article

Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Following 500 LNT Desulfation Events

2009-10-06
2009-01-2835
An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is characterized following end-of-life catalyst aging to meet final Tier 4 off-highway emission requirements. This system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The fuel reformer is used to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia (NH3) is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses system durability as the catalysts were aged to 500 desulfation events using an off-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

PIV Measurements of In-Cylinder Flow in a Four-Stroke Utility Engine and Correlation with Steady Flow Results

2004-09-27
2004-32-0005
Large-scale flows in internal combustion engines directly affect combustion duration and emissions production. These benefits are significant given increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy requirements. Recent efforts by engine manufacturers to improve in-cylinder flows have focused on the design of specially shaped intake ports. Utility engine manufacturers are limited to simple intake port geometries to reduce the complexity of casting and cost of manufacturing. These constraints create unique flow physics in the engine cylinder in comparison to automotive engines. An experimental study of intake-generated flows was conducted in a four-stroke spark-ignition utility engine. Steady flow and in-cylinder flow measurements were made using three simple intake port geometries at three port orientations. Steady flow measurements were performed to characterize the swirl and tumble-generating capability of the intake ports.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

2006-04-03
2006-01-0043
This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.
Journal Article

NOx Performance of an LNT+SCR System Designed to Meet EPA 2010 Emissions: Results of Engine Dynamometer Emission Tests

2008-10-07
2008-01-2642
The paper covers the NOx performance evaluation of an LNT + SCR system designed to meet the 2010 on-highway heavy-duty (HD) US EPA emission standards. The system combines a fuel reformer catalyst (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in series, to reduce engine-out NOx and PM. System NOx reduction performance was verified in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 2007 7.6L medium-duty engine. System NOx performance was characterized using fresh LNT and SCR along with hydrothermal aged LNT and fresh SCR. Test results show levels consistent with EPA 2010 limits under various test conditions. Catalysts performance was characterized at eight steady engine-operating conditions (A100, B50, B75, A75, B100, C100, C75, C50, across a 13-mode Supplemental Emission Test (SET), and an on-highway Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure (HD-FTP).
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Design Optimization Using a Damage Material Model Applied to Light Weighting a Formula SAE Car Suspension Component

2009-04-20
2009-01-0348
The Mississippi State University Formula SAE race car upright was optimized using radial basis function metamodels and an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity damage material model. The weight reduction of the upright was part of a goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by 25 percent. Using an optimization routine provided an upright design that is lighter that helps to improve vehicle fuel economy, acceleration, and handling. Finite element (FE) models of the upright were produced using quadratic tetrahedral elements. Using tetrahedral elements provided a quick way to produce the multiple FE models of the upright required for the multi-objective optimization. A design of experiments was used to determine how many simulations were required for the optimization. The loads for the simulations included braking, acceleration, and corning loads seen by the car under track conditions.
Technical Paper

Microprocessor Based Electrohydraulic Control For Car Haulers

1988-09-01
881278
Car hauler ramps have historically been hydraulically positioned via banks of manual control valves that provide limited operator visibility and flexibility. On some enclosed type haulers, manual valves are not feasible. An electro-hydraulic system has been developed utilizing on/off solenoid valve stacks. A handheld control unit with a membrane switch pad communicates with a valve interface module near each valve stack. The handheld unit and the interface modules each have microprocessor circuitry to provide intelligent distributed control. Self monitoring circuitry provides safety features and system diagnostics. Wiring harness assemblies connect the valve stacks to the interface modules. A retractile cable from the handheld unit to the trailer allows improved operator mobility and visibility. An infrared wireless interface between the trailer and handheld unit will also be available.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Modeling and Simulation for Diesel Aftertreatment Controls Devlopment

2009-10-06
2009-01-2928
This paper addresses Hardware-In-the-Loop modeling and simulation for Diesel aftertreatment controls system development. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) based aftertreatment system is an efficient way to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines. From control system perspective, the main challenge in aftertreatment system is to predict temperature at various locations and estimate the stored NOx in LNT. Accurate estimation of temperatures and NOx stored in the LNT will result in an efficient system control with less fuel penalty while still maintaining the emission requirements. The optimization of the controls will prolong the lifespan of the system by avoiding overheating the catalysts, and slow the progressive process of component aging. Under real world conditions, it is quite difficult and costly to test the performance of a such complex controller by using only vehicle tests and engine cells.
Technical Paper

Gear Transmission Error Metric for Use with Gear Inspection Machine

2003-05-05
2003-01-1663
The spur timing gears in Eaton superchargers operate at low torque loads and the supercharger system is especially sensitive to gear whine noise created by minute differences in the spur gear tooth profile quality. This has necessitated the grinding of very high quality profiles on high-contact-ratio spur gears. The manufacturing operation has used subjective evaluation of profile and lead measurements to qualify grinder diamonds and audit gear quality related to noise. They have also relied on supercharger end-of-line-testers to provide a direct measurement of gear noise as the primary quality feedback to the gear manufacturing process. Since the difference in the inspection plots of very high quality profiles is difficult to determine subjectively, the inspection process assessments have been difficult to correlate to the resultant gear noise measurements.
Technical Paper

Gear Design for Low Whine Noise in a Supercharger Application

2007-05-15
2007-01-2293
Supercharger gear whine noise has been a NVH concern for many years, especially around idle rpm. The engine masking noise is very low at idle and the supercharger is sensitive to transmitted gear whine noise from the timing gears. The low loads and desire to use spur gears for ease in timing the rotors have caused the need to make very accurate profiles for minimizing gear whine noise. Over the past several years there has been an effort to better understand gear whine noise source and transmission path. Based on understanding the shaft bending mode frequencies and better gear design optimization tools, the gear design was modified to increase the number of teeth in order to move out of the frequency range of the shaft bending modes at idle speed and to lower the transmission error of the gear design through optimization using the RMC (Run Many Cases) software from the OSU gear laboratory.
Technical Paper

Final Tier 4 Emission Solution Using An Aftertreatment System With A Fuel Reformer, LNT, DPF And Optional SCR

2011-09-13
2011-01-2197
Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are required for meeting Final Tier 4 emission regulations. This paper addresses an aftertreatment system designed to meet the Final Tier 4 emission standards for nonroad vehicle markets. The aftertreatment system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel vaporizer, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an optional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Aftertreatment system performance, both with and without the SCR, was characterized in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 4.5 liter, pre-production diesel engine. The engine out NOx nominally ranged between 1.6 and 2.0 g/kW-hr while all operating modes ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 g/kW-hr. The engine out particulate matter was calibrated to approximately 0.1 g/kW-hr for various power ratings. Three engine power ratings of 104 kW, 85 kW and 78 kW were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Assessment on an Automotive Engine Exhaust Valve

2006-04-03
2006-01-0977
This paper presents the fatigue life assessment work on an engine exhaust valve subject to specified durability test cycles. Using valve stress (or strain) data from finite element methods, material fatigue data, and fatigue prediction models (i.e. SN approach and εN approach based on multi-axial Brown-Miller critical plane method), the valve life estimates were obtained and compared with the observed test data, which were in reasonable agreement. In addition, crack growth approach was used and valve crack propagation life including early stage growth was computed. Finally, a general discussion on three life estimates (i.e. fatigue total life, strain-life and crack growth life) was provided with their governing equation, supported by three real cases.
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