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Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Technical Paper

Plant Identification and Design of Optimal Clutch Engagement Controller

Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Time-to-Failure Prediction Methodology for Glass (Fused Quartz) Material under Cyclic Loading

In amorphous solids such as fused quartz, the failure mechanism under cyclic loading is very different when compared to metals where this failure is attributable to dislocation movement and eventual slip band activity. Standard mechanical fatigue prediction methodologies, S-N or ε-N based, which have been historically developed for metals are rendered inapplicable for this class of material. The fatigue strength of Fused Silica or Fused Quartz (SiO2) material is known to be highly dependent on the stressed area and the surface finish. Stable crack growth in Region II of the V-K curve (Crack growth rate vs Stress intensity factor) is dependent on the competing and transitional effects of temperature and humidity, along that specific section of the stress intensity factor abscissa. Fused glass (under harsh environment conditions) finds usage in Automotive, Marine and Aerospace applications, where stress and load (both static and cyclic) can be severe.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Assessment on an Automotive Engine Exhaust Valve

This paper presents the fatigue life assessment work on an engine exhaust valve subject to specified durability test cycles. Using valve stress (or strain) data from finite element methods, material fatigue data, and fatigue prediction models (i.e. SN approach and εN approach based on multi-axial Brown-Miller critical plane method), the valve life estimates were obtained and compared with the observed test data, which were in reasonable agreement. In addition, crack growth approach was used and valve crack propagation life including early stage growth was computed. Finally, a general discussion on three life estimates (i.e. fatigue total life, strain-life and crack growth life) was provided with their governing equation, supported by three real cases.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis Methodology for Predicting Engine Valve Life

Using FEM (Finite Element Method) and other analytical approaches, a systematic methodology was developed to predict an engine valve's fatigue life. In this study, a steel (SAE 21-2N) exhaust valve on an engine with a type 2 valve train configuration was used as a test case. Temperature and stress/strain responses of each major event phase of the engine cycle were analytically simulated. CFD models were developed to simulate the exhaust gas flow to generate boundary conditions for a thermal model of the valve. FEM simulations accounted for thermal loads, temperature dependent material properties, thermal stresses, closing impact stresses and combustion load stresses. An estimated fatigue life was calculated using Miner's rule of damage accumulation in conjunction with the Modified Goodman approach for fluctuating stresses. Predicted life results correlated very well with empirical tests.
Technical Paper

Environmental Standards for Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids and Correlation of Laboratory and Field Performance

Biodegradable hydraulic fluids have been introduced relatively recently and, initially, acceptable environmental performance and technical performance were neither well specified or controlled. Over the past few years, many standards and specifications have been written, especially in the area of biodegradability and ecotoxicity. Technical performance test requirements are emerging more slowly, however, and there is still some doubt over appropriate tests and limits for some performance areas. The proliferation of standards is confusing to both the product developer and fluid user. This paper summarizes the common biodegradability and ecotoxicity elements in the main environmental performance standards. It also discusses appropriate laboratory performance tests for oxidation stability, hydrolytic stability and wear, and sets acceptable limits in these tests, based on correlation of lab and field performance of two synthetic ester based hydraulic fluids.
Technical Paper

Development of Net Shape Fiber Reinforced Plenum for Electronic Limited Slip Differential

Global vehicle emissions reduction initiatives have warranted the development and usage of new materials and processes not traditionally used in the automotive industry besides exclusive applications. To support this mandate, vehicle lightweighting via metal replacement and design optimization has come into sharp focus as a doubly rewarding effect; namely, a lighter vehicle system not only requires less road load power for motivation, but also allows for smaller, usually more efficient powertrain options, which tend to be more efficient still. The automotive industry has begun to embrace adapting composite materials that have typically been available only to the upper end of the market and specialty racing applications. The specific component detailed in this paper highlights the challenges and rewards for metal replacement with an injection molded, fiber reinforced plastic for usage in mass produced drivetrain systems, namely the Electronic Limited Slip Differential (eLSD).
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for a Switching Roller Finger Follower

An advanced variable valve actuation system is developed that requires a coating with high stress loading capability on the sliding interfaces to enable compact packaging solutions for gasoline passenger car applications. The valvetrain system consists of a switching roller bearing finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve. The SRFF contains two slider pads and a single roller to provide discrete variable valve lift capability on the intake valves. These components are installed on a four cylinder gasoline engine. The motivation for designing this type of variable valve actuation system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during partial load engine operation. This paper addresses the technology developed to utilize a Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the slider pads of the SRFF.