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Journal Article

Wheel Bearing Brinelling and a Vehicle Curb Impact DOE to Understand Factors Affecting Bearing Loads

As material cleanliness and bearing lubrication have improved, wheel bearings are experiencing less raceway spalling failures from rotating fatigue. Warranty part reviews have shown that two of the larger failure modes for wheel bearings are contaminant ingress and Brinell damage from curb and pothole impacts. Warranty has also shown that larger wheels have higher rates of Brinell warranty. This paper discusses the Brinell failure mode for bearings. It reviews a vehicle test used to evaluate Brinell performance for wheel bearings. The paper also discusses a design of experiments to study the effects of factors such as wheel size, vehicle loading and vehicle position versus the bearing load from a vehicle side impact to the wheel. As the trend in vehicle styling is moving to larger wheels and low profile tires, understanding the impact load can help properly size wheel bearings.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality

GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
Journal Article

Vehicle Integration Factors Affecting Brake Caliper Drag

Disc brakes operate with very close proximity of the brake pads and the brake rotor, with as little as a tenth of a millimeter of movement of the pads required to bring them into full contact with the rotor to generate braking torque. It is usual for a disc brake to operate with some amount of residual drag in the fully released state, signifying constant contact between the pads and the rotor. With this contact, every miniscule movement of the rotor pushes against the brake pads and changes the forces between them. Sustained loads on the brake corner, and maneuvers such as cornering, can both produce rotor movement relative to the caliper, which can push it steadily against one or both of the brake pads. This can greatly increase the residual force in the caliper, and increase drag. This dependence of drag behavior on the movement of the brake rotor creates some vehicle-dependent behavior.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamometer for Hybrid Truck Development

A special vehicle dynamometer has been developed that allows engineers to evaluate driveline components and control algorithms for advanced, electrically-assisted drive systems on commercial vehicles. This dynamometer allows objective measurements of performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions, while the full vehicle is operated over a specified driving cycle. This system can be used to exercise the electric motor, engine, transmission and battery systems on Medium Duty Hybrid Trucks - in regeneration as well as power mode - all indoors and in a controlled, repeatable environment. This paper will provide descriptions of the operating goals, control features, and results of testing with this dynamometer. Once the various parameters have been optimized for fuel and emissions performance in this facility, the vehicle can be evaluated where it counts - on the road.
Journal Article

Valve Guide for High Temperature Applications

Sintered valve guides are increasingly used in various engine applications due to their superior durability and cost. Typical valve guide materials are low alloyed materials of the type Fe-Cu-C. More severe applications may require higher alloying content. One such application is EGR where the exhaust temperatures are much higher as compared to the conventional automotive valve guide. A new material was developed to work in this harsh environment. The object of this paper is to report development of this material including material properties and durability test results.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Technical Paper

Timing Gear Whine Noise Reduction Methodology and Application in Superchargers

Extensive experimental and numerical investigations were done to improve the vibration and acoustic performance due to excitation at the timing gears of automotive supercharger. Gear excitation, system response, and covers have been studied to find the most cost efficient method for reducing gear whine noise. Initially, gear excitation was studied where it was found that transmission error due to profile quality was the dominant source parameter for gear whine noise. To investigate the system effects on gear noise, a parametric study was carried using FEM model of the supercharger, with special interests in optimizing dynamic characteristics of internal components and the coupling to supercharger housing. The BEM model of the corresponding supercharger was built to predict the noise improvement after dynamic optimization of the system. Good correlations were observed between experimental and numerical results in both dynamic and acoustic parameters.
Journal Article

The Effect of Outer Ring Distortion on Wheel Bearing Friction Torque

Wheel bearing friction torque (“drag”) directly contributes to vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions. At the same time, one of the most important factors for long-term durability of wheel bearings is effective seal performance. Since these two factors are often in conflict, it is important to balance the desire for low friction with the need for optimal sealing. One factor that affects wheel bearing sealing performance is the distortion of the outer ring that occurs when the bearing is mounted to the steering knuckle with fasteners. Minimizing this distortion is not just important for sealing, however. This paper explores the relationship between the outer ring distortion and the resulting friction torque. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used in order to study the effects of the fastening bolt torque, constant velocity joint (CVJ) fastening torque, and outer ring distortion on component-level drag.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Stress Analysis of an Automotive Engine Valve by Finite Element Methods

A detailed study, by finite element method (FEM), was conducted on an automotive engine exhaust valve subject to various loads (i.e. spring load, combustion pressure load, temperature profile and valve impact closing velocity). The 3D nonlinear (contact element and temperature-dependent) thermal-mechanical model was constructed and implicit time integration method was employed in transient dynamics under impact velocity. The predicted temperatures and maximum valve stress under impact velocity via FEM were compared with the measured test data, which were in good agreement. In addition, this study finds that the energy transfer during valve closing in normal engine operation is mainly conservative, and a linear relation exists between valve closing velocity and maximum stem stress, that was also confirmed by both test data and analytical expression presented using elastic wave and vibration theory.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Engine Valve Stress/Strain Response During a Closing Event

Using an implicit transient FEA models of an intake engine valve, the dynamic stress/strain response of a valve closing (impact) on the valve seat was simulated. Key dynamic events during the closing process were identified and their corresponding physics accounted for in the model including: valve seat contact, valve tilt, rocker arm separation, material properties, shock wave and stem seal damping. Empirical tests were conducted to characterize the stem seal damping as a function of valve stem velocity. In addition, a simplified dynamics equation approach was developed. The results were successfully correlated to recorded strain gauge data.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Technical Paper

Plant Identification and Design of Optimal Clutch Engagement Controller

Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper

On-board Measurements of City Buses with Hybrid Electric Powertrain, Conventional Diesel and LPG Engines

On-board measurements of fuel consumption and vehicle exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2, and PM are being conducted for three types of commercially available city buses in Guangzhou, China. The selected vehicles for this test include a diesel bus with Eaton hybrid electric powertrain, a conventional diesel bus with automated mechanical transmission (AMT), and a LPG powered city bus with manual transmission (MT). All of the tested vehicles were instrumented with on-board measurements. Horiba OBS-2200 was used for measuring NOx, HC, and CO emissions; ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) was used for PM measurement. The vehicles were tested at Hainan National Proving Ground in southern China. Test data of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were analyzed. The city bus with Eaton hybrid electric powertrain demonstrated more than 27% fuel consumption reduction over the conventional diesel powered bus, and over 68% over the LPG bus.
Technical Paper

Numerical Improvement of ADVISOR for Evaluating Commercial Vehicles with Traditional Powertrain Systems

ADVISOR is a flexible drivetrain analysis tool, developed in MATLAB/Simulink® to compare fuel economy and emissions performance between different drivetrain configurations. This paper reports a couple of numerical issues with application of ADVISOR 2002 to commercial vehicles with traditional powertrain systems. One instance is when ADVISOR model is set up to simulate running a heavy-duty (HD) truck with an automated manual transmission (AMT) on a demanding pickup-delivery duty cycle. The other is highlighted during an analysis of a medium-duty (MD) truck with an automatic transmission (AT) where wide-open throttle, i.e., fast acceleration is requested. These two cases have shown different numerical difficulties by using ADVISOR 2002. Based on studying the details of the models, solutions to these numerical issues are developed. The simulation results will demonstrate the effectiveness of these solutions.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.