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Technical Paper

The Impact of Operating Conditions on Post-Injection Efficacy; a Study Using Design-of-Experiments

Post-injection strategies prove to be a valuable option for reducing soot emission, but experimental results often differ from publication to publication. These discrepancies are likely caused by the selected operating conditions and engine hardware in separate studies. Efforts to optimize not only engine-out soot, but simultaneously fuel economy and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) complicate the understanding of post-injection effects even more. Still, the large amount of published work on the topic is gradually forming a consensus. In the current work, a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) procedure and regression analysis are used to investigate the influence of various operating conditions on post-injection scheduling and efficacy. The study targets emission reductions of soot and NOx, as well as fuel economy improvements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy-duty compression ignition engine at three load-speed combinations.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Late Stage Conventional Diesel Combustion - Effect of Additives

The accepted model of conventional diesel combustion [1] assumes a rich premixed flame slightly downstream of the maximum liquid penetration. The soot generated by this rich premixed flame is burnt out by a subsequent diffusion flame at the head of the jet. Even in situations in which the centre of combustion (CA50) is phased optimally to maximize efficiency, slow late stage combustion can still have a significant detrimental impact on thermal efficiency. Data is presented on potential late-stage combustion improvers in a EURO VI compliant HD engine at a range of speed and load points. The operating conditions (e.g. injection timings, EGR levels) were based on a EURO VI calibration which targets 3 g/kWh of engine-out NOx. Rates of heat release were determined from the pressure sensor data. To investigate late stage combustion, focus was made on the position in the cycle at which 90% of the fuel had combusted (CA90). An EN590 compliant fuel was tested.
Journal Article

Commercial Naphtha Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion

Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot with a simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency. Several research groups have shown that a load range from idle to full load is possible, when using low-octane-number refinery streams, in the gasoline boiling range. As such refinery streams are not expected to be commercially available on the short term, the use of naphtha blends that are commercially available could provide a practical solution. The three blends used in this investigation have been tested in a single-cylinder engine for their emission and efficiency performance. Besides a presentation of the sensitivity to injection strategies, dilution levels and fuel pressure, emission performance is compared to legislated emission levels. Conventional diesel combustion benchmarks are used for reference to show possible improvements in indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load PPC Operation using RON70 Fuels

The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion is known for reduced hazardous emissions and improved efficiency. Since a low-reactive fuel is required to extend the ignition delay at elevated loads, controllability and stability issues occur at the low-load end. In this investigation seven fuel blends are used, all having a Research Octane Number of around 70 and a distinct composition or boiling range. Four of them could be regarded as ‘viable refinery fuels’ since they are based on current refinery feedstocks. The latter three are based on primary reference fuels, being PRF70 and blends with ethanol and toluene respectively. Previous experiments revealed significant ignition differences, which asked for further understanding with an extended set of measurements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy duty diesel engine modified for single cylinder operation. In this investigation, emphasis is put on idling (600 rpm) and low load conditions.
Journal Article

Butanol-Diesel Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion

Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of high efficiency, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot below future emissions regulations, and acceptable acoustic noise. Low-octane-number gasoline fuels were shown to be most suitable for this concept, with the reactivity determining the possible load range. Other researchers have used several refinery streams, which might be produced by a refinery if they were required to do so without additional investment. Some of refinery streams are, however, not expected to be commercially available on the short term. For the present investigation, n-butanol (BuOH) has been selected as a blend component in diesel, and is used from 50 - 100%. The blends then have a reactivity range similar to the refinery streams, so single-cylinder engine tests for their emission and efficiency performance can also be used to determine their applicable load range.